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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 63-70

Epidemiology and incidence of traumatic head injury associated with maxillofacial fractures: A global perspective


Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shaifulizan A. B. Rahman
Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan
Malaysia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jioh.jioh_9_18

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Traumatic head injuries (THIs) associated with maxillofacial fractures (MFFs) are large public health concern worldwide, especially among adult-aged males. The MF injuries accompanied with THI involve serious esthetic and functional problems that lead to various consequential complications; therefore, early detection of associated THI in patients with MFF is the urgent need for initial assessment and treatment planning because it can reduce morbidity and mortality and enhance the outcome of treatment in those patients. The present review provides current updates for THI associated with MFF among different countries considering the prevalence, age, sex, etiology, and types of MFF in patients with THI throughout the world. The young adult males in the age group of 20–39 years were the most sustained THI associated with MFF. Road traffic accident (RTA) was the most common etiology of injury followed by assault, fall, and the other causes represent very low percentages. The types of MFF (orbital, zygoma, maxilla, and mandible) were associated with THI in MFF patients. Within the limits of the reviewed THI associated with MFF literature, it was concluded that civilization, culture, adult age group, male gender, RTA, and assault were the major factors that determine the trends of THI-related MFF. In this study, we recommend improving public awareness by applying road traffic regulations, encouraging the rules for compulsory use of seat belts and helmet, avoiding risky driving, and enhancing road quality.


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