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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 111-114

An assessment of the self-satisfying smile among different professionals


Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, School of Dental Sciences, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication14-Jun-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ankit Chaudhari
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, School of Dental Sciences, Sharda University, Knowledge Park, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jioh.jioh_107_18

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  Abstract 

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the variation in self-assessment of smile among dental and nondental professional groups. Materials and Methods: We carried a cross-sectional, analytical study on dental and nondental male professionals. Spontaneous photograph of each smiling participant was taken and showed to all of them. They were asked to judge their own smile according to their smile-line height. Five-point response scale was used, varying from 1 (very unfavorable) to 5 (very favorable); a nonlinear quadratic regression analysis was used to determine objective smile-line height and judgment of the smile esthetics. Results: Overall fit of the regression analysis model of dental students was poor (P = 0.075), as was for nondental students (P = 0.727). The smile-line height was a significant predictor of the self-assessment of the dental students and not significant for nondental students. Conclusion: The perception of participants having dental knowledge and those not having dental knowledge vary, and thus, we suggest that patients' self-perception must be given consideration while setting a goal for outcome.

Keywords: Dental students, esthetics, photograph, self-perception, smile-line height


How to cite this article:
Chaudhari A, Bagga DK, Agrawal P, Kalra H, Sirohi D. An assessment of the self-satisfying smile among different professionals. J Int Oral Health 2018;10:111-4

How to cite this URL:
Chaudhari A, Bagga DK, Agrawal P, Kalra H, Sirohi D. An assessment of the self-satisfying smile among different professionals. J Int Oral Health [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Jul 16];10:111-4. Available from: http://www.jioh.org/text.asp?2018/10/3/111/234517


  Introduction Top


Smile is regarded as the most significant feature of facial expression and is necessary in conveying friendliness, harmony, and admiration, thus playing an important part in social interactions. Facial attractiveness is mainly dependent on two features: first eyes and then smile.[1],[2]

Smile gives a positive impression on observers and ours being a beauty-conscious society, and smile has a role in evaluating personality and also on employment prospects.[3] Individuals who exhibit good smile appear more confident and positive in nature, whereas those without proper smile are usually low in self-esteem and are negative and unattractive in nature. Even during normal conversation, focus is mainly on eyes and lips, especially smile.[4] It is proved that photographs of persons with esthetic smile belonged to individuals having better intellectual and social abilities.[5],[6]

Various factors affecting a pleasant smile are position of teeth, appearance of gingiva, and framing of the lips. Of all these factors, lips, especially upper lip, have a major role as gingiva and portion of teeth appear when one is smiling.[7]

Earlier studies were done using photographs of smiling persons unknown to the observers, but self-assessing studies are not many. Furthermore, as most of the photographs are taken with posed smiles, people will not have any idea how their smiles appear when acting spontaneously.[5],[6],[8],[9],[10]

To assess the one's own smile, we surveyed the aspects of esthetic smile including amount of crown of the upper central incisor and lip-line height. From them, we assessed the smile-line height of the individual.


  Materials and Methods Top


Our study sample was 50 male dental students and 50 male nondental students between 17 and 25 years. Sample size calculation was based on confidence interval 95% and margin of error 5%. We selected the sample randomly. Our study period was from January 2017 to June 2017.

Inclusion criteria

  1. Dentulous individuals at least up to first molars
  2. Indian nationality
  3. Those without any facial disharmonies
  4. Those without visible periodontal disease or caries were included in the study.


Smile recording and measurement

We obtained Institutional Ethical Clearance (IEC/2016/76-A/40) and informed consent from all the participants. During normal conversation with each participant, spontaneous smile was recorded by means of a digital videographic measurement method. Thus, obtained video clip was transferred to a computer with Adobe Premiere Pro software and analyzed and fragmented during smile and speech. Static frames (photographs) that represented the maximum disclosure of the upper central incisors were chosen. Freeware program videomed 1-16-2002 ALPHA (Version PAEDD) was used for assessing distance and area in video.

For each participant, when the smile was spontaneous, smile-line height was measured as the difference between tooth length and lip-line height. The values were considered as positive if the lip was above gingival margin and negative when teeth were partly covered [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Smiling photograph of a participant by digital videography

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Assessment of smile esthetics

Each participant was asked to judge his smile by means of a spontaneous smiling. The following components were used in the study [Figure 2]:
Figure 2: Smile-line measurement

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  1. Length of the amount of visible crown of the upper central incisor, i.e., 11 or 21, whichever is the most prominent. In case both are of equal length, then length of 11 was taken
  2. Lip-line height: Upper lip and the central incisor incisal edge
  3. Smile-line height = Height of the lip line − tooth length.


Perception component

Five-point response scale was used, 1 (very unfavorable) to 5 (very favorable).

Data analysis

A nonlinear quadratic regression analysis was used to determine the relation between the objective smile-line height and judgment of the smile esthetics. The Statistical Package for the Social Services (SPSS) version 17 (IBM Corp, Armonk, New York) for Windows software was used.


  Results Top


The overall fit of the regression model of dental students was poor (P = 0.075). Only smile-line height was a significant predictor of self-assessment of smile among dental students. Low smile lines with only marginal tooth display and high smile lines with more gingival display were considered as less desirable.[11],[12] In cases where smile-line height was >2 mm, smile was regarded as the most desirable and the range of 0.075–0.125 mm as the least desirable [Table 1] and [Graph 1].
Table 1: Regression coefficients of length of the crown visible, lip-line height, and smile-line height with self-perception of smile among dental students

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We found that the overall fit of the regression model of nondental students was poor (P = 0.727). The smile-line height which was a significant predictor of the self-perception of the dental students was not significant for nondental students [Table 2] and [Graph 2].
Table 2: Regression coefficients of length of the crown visible, lip-line height, and smile-line height with self-perception of smile among nondental students

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  Discussion Top


We carried our study in two groups from different professional background, dentists, and nondentists, with one group having dental knowledge and one not. As other fields are using three-dimensional technology, orthodontists recently are assessing patients' profile and smile using the newest technology and computerized digital videography. By means of computerization, orthodontists are able to document and communicate the treatment planning with patients and dental colleagues of the same specialty and related specialties. A self-assessment study was carried as it reveals the patients' perspective and expectations.[11],[12],[13]

The major controlling factor of smile is lips. In cases where upper lip was elevated, the gingiva and teeth were more visible, and greater will be the determination of the appearance of smile. In younger individuals, higher smile lines which fully display the teeth are usually seen.[14],[15]

In our study, participants with smile lines above 2 mm range (full teeth and some gingival displayed) had far more favorable self-perception of the smile. Measurement of the pixels gave an exact range for the smile-line height as bias by zooming of the photograph was not an issue as zooming did not change the pixels. Smile-line height was the most significant deciding factor than the other two factors for the dental students whereas the self-perception of students from nondental background had no significant factors.

However, the smile-line height which was a significant predictor of the self-perception among the dental students was not significant for nondental students. Bright smile appreciation by the dental participants corresponded with that of nondental participants. Previous studies revealed that a bright smile with clearly displayed well-proportioned teeth is related with qualities such as maturity, masculinity, strength, dominance, and social competence.[15],[16]

We found that the awareness and perception of the participants differed among students of dental and nondental background. In self-perception of smile attractiveness and satisfaction, we believe a difference in parts and the whole. The rules of the Gestalt psychology, the whole is something else than the sum of its parts. Like in case of the mouth, self-perception is bound to be influenced by psychological circumstances as the mouth plays a vital role in the psycho-physiologic development of the individual and the emotional perception in adults.

However, comparing such studies is controversial as smile esthetics is analyzed by different methods such as web-based surveys, software-altered images, and photographs and individuals of different sociocultural aspects.[15],[16],[17]

Limitations

  1. Smaller sample size
  2. Few variables taken into account
  3. Only men were considered.


Future perspectives

Dental students in the department of orthodontics should be taught about the difference in perception of smile among professionals and nonprofessionals as it helps to treat patients differently and also in addressing patients' expectations regarding esthetics.


  Conclusion Top


The perception of participants having dental knowledge and those not having dental knowledge vary, and thus, it is very much suggested that patients' self-perception must be given consideration while setting a goal for outcome.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Rehman K, Khan FR, Rahman M. Assessing the perception of smile attractiveness in young adults. A pilot study. J Pak Dent Assoc 2011;20:206-10.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Omar H, Tai YT. Perception of smile esthetics among dental and nondental students. J Educ Ethics Dent 2014;4:54-60.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.
Sriphadungporn C, Chamnannidiadha N. Perception of smile esthetics by laypeople of different ages. Prog Orthod 2017;18:8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Chou JC, Nelson A, Katwal D, Elathamna EN, Durski MT. Effect of smile index and incisal edge position on perception of attractiveness in different age groups. J Oral Rehabil 2016;43:855-62.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Al Taki A, Khalesi M, Shagmani M, Yahia I, Al Kaddah F. Perceptions of altered smile esthetics: A comparative evaluation in orthodontists, dentists, and laypersons. Int J Dent 2016;2016:7815274.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Newton JT, Prabhu N, Robinson PG. The impact of dental appearance on the appraisal of personal characteristics. Int J Prosthodont 2003;16:429-34.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
AlShahrani I. Perception of professional female college students towards smile arc types and outlook about their appearance. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2017;7:329-35.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kokich VO Jr., Kiyak HA, Shapiro PA. Comparing the perception of dentists and lay people to altered dental esthetics. J Esthet Dent 1999;11:311-24.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Al Taki A, Mohammed TH, Hamdan AM. Influence of the smile line on smile attractiveness in short and long face individuals. Int J Dent 2017;2017:7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Wolfart S, Quaas AC, Freitag S, Kropp P, Gerber WD, Kern M, et al. Subjective and objective perception of upper incisors. J Oral Rehabil 2006;33:489-95.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Bilal R. Self perception and satisfaction with dental esthetics in dental students of qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Pak Oral Dent J 2016;36:399-403.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Heravi F, Ahrari F, Rashed R, Heravi P, Ghaffari N, Habibirad A. Evaluation of factors affecting dental esthetics in patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Int J Orthod Rehabil 2016;7:79-84.  Back to cited text no. 12
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Araujo TM, Fonseca LM, Caldas LD, Costa-Pinto RA. Preparation and evaluation of orthodontic setup. Dent Press J Orthod 2012;17:146-65.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Athira S, Jayakumar HL, Chandra M, Gupta T, Anand PJ, Dithi C. Dental esthetic perceptions and orthodontic treatment needs among school children aged 9-18 years of South Bengaluru: A cross-sectional study. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2016;14:50-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
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15.
van der Geld PA, Oosterveld P, van Waas MA, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM. Digital videographic measurement of tooth display and lip position in smiling and speech: Reliability and clinical application. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007;131:301.e1-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Macías Gago AB, Romero Maroto M, Crego A. The perception of facial aesthetics in a young Spanish population. Eur J Orthod 2012;34:335-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Livas C, Delli K. Subjective and objective perception of orthodontic treatment need: A systematic review. Eur J Orthod 2013;35:347-53.  Back to cited text no. 17
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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