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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 127-131

The association between the use of new oral contraceptive pills and periodontal health: A matched case–control study


1 Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
2 Consultant Gynecologist, Hope Fertility Clinic, Amman, Jordan

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Leena Smadi
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Queen Rania Street, Postal Code 111983, Amman
Jordan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jioh.jioh_17_18

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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) on the periodontal status of the women using them. Materials and Methods: During the period from January 2016 to June 2017, 139 oral contraceptive users (Group A) and 142 nonusers (Group B) were examined by a blinded examiner using a mouth mirror and a 15-mm conventional periodontal probe (Hu-Friedy). The dental examination included the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), gingival index, sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and clinical attachment loss (CAL). A full-mouth examination excluding the third molars was performed at four sites per tooth (mesiobuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, and distolingual). The results of these examinations were compared between the two groups to identify significant differences. Results: Both groups were comparable with regard to their demographic data. Group A had a significantly higher mean OHI-S score than Group B (0.43 vs. 0.29, respectively). The gingival index score was also higher in OCP users than in nonusers (0.78 vs. 0.37, respectively). The SBI score was 0.72 in Group A and 0.41 in Group B, demonstrating a significant difference between OCP users and nonusers. The CAL score was 1.62 in Group A versus 1.11 in Group B, and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusions: The use of combined oral contraceptives can influence the periodontal condition of patients, resulting in increased gingival disease. This adverse effect can be enhanced by the use of newer generations of OCPs, especially in high-risk populations.


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