|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 7 | Page : 34-36
Local myth and facts approach for maximizing oral health promotion training among the school teachers and parents in urban village
Retno Palupi, Titiek Berniyanti, Taufan Bramantoro, Gilang Rasuna Sabdho Wening, Aryo Dwipo Kusumo, Achmad Zamzam
Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
|Date of Web Publication||28-Jan-2019|
Dr. Retno Palupi
Mayjend. Prof. Moestopo No. 47, Surabaya, East Java
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aims: This study aimed to enhancing the oral and dental health service in the community. Subjects and Methods: The program is targeted for the mothers and female teachers of the primary school students in Surabaya. This study uses the total sampling method. Pretest was conducted for the mothers and female teachers of the 1st–2nd grade students at a primary school, Surabaya. It was then followed by a demonstration of caries prediction software in order to increase the participants' awareness of the impact of dental caries. After the counseling session, the knowledge of the participants was evaluated. This was carried out through a posttest. The participants were also given certificates as a form of appreciation. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS V.017 software. Results: Subsequent to the empowerment program, the knowledge of the program participants increased, as seen from the comparison between the scores in pre- and post-tests. Conclusions: The program Local Myth and Facts Approach Apps can serve as an educational means regarding oral and dental health for the parents and teachers of students.
Keywords: Caries, health promotion, myth and facts, primary school students
|How to cite this article:|
Palupi R, Berniyanti T, Bramantoro T, Wening GR, Kusumo AD, Zamzam A. Local myth and facts approach for maximizing oral health promotion training among the school teachers and parents in urban village. J Int Oral Health 2019;11, Suppl S1:34-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Palupi R, Berniyanti T, Bramantoro T, Wening GR, Kusumo AD, Zamzam A. Local myth and facts approach for maximizing oral health promotion training among the school teachers and parents in urban village. J Int Oral Health [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 May 20];11, Suppl S1:34-6. Available from: http://www.jioh.org/text.asp?2019/11/7/34/250912
| Introduction|| |
Oral and dental disease is one of the most common diseases worldwide. In Indonesia in 2013, the prevalence of oral and dental problems reached 25.9%. Caries is a disease in the demineralized hard tissues of the teeth due to microorganism activities.
The results of problem assessment reported from the previous epidemiological study show that the 1st–6th grade students in three different elementary schools had the caries prevalence of 90% out of 148 observed respondents. The high different prevalence of caries among countries is influenced by social, economic, and behavioral factors, as well as the presence or absence of government attention to preventive measures in dental and oral diseases. The result of priority setting using Urgency Seriousness Growth (USG) method shows that the main problems among the community included soda consumption which affects caries incident, low frequency of brushing teeth (less than twice a day) which affects the risk of caries, incorrect way of brushing teeth, the community's lack of awareness of preventing caries (as concluded from their reasons to visit dentists), and caries occurring in the 1st–3rd grade students of primary schools. One of the risk factors concerned here is the influence of respondent's mother's educational background [Table 1].
|Table 1: Respondents' distribution of decayed, missing, and filled teeth|
Click here to view
The limited number of human resources in the dental unit of Sawahan Health Center leads to the less optimum process of information transfer during the counseling session with the primary high school students in the duty area of Sawahan Health Center, particularly those from the 1st and 2nd grades.
Some of the risk factors established above were intervened using several means problem-solving, including empowerment program for the community in the form of educational program on oral and dental health. This study aimed to enhancing the oral and dental health service in the community is expected to enhance the knowledge and to increase the awareness of maintaining oral and dental health in the duty area of Sawahan Health Center, particularly for those with caries.
| Subjects and Methods|| |
All the respondents who participated in this study had filled the informed consent that stated their willingness for intraoral examination and filling questionnaire. Ethic approval for performing this study has been obtained from Research Ethic Committee of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Airlangga, with the number of ethic clearance 82/KKEPK.FKG/VI/2016. The program is targeted for the mothers and female teachers of the primary school students in Surabaya. This study uses the total sampling method. Prior to the program implementation, a pretest was conducted for the mothers and female teachers of the 1st–2nd grade students at a primary school, Surabaya. It was then followed by a demonstration of caries prediction software in order to increase the participants' awareness of the impact of dental caries. Afterward, they were educated about the myths and facts on oral and dental health as known among the community, the way of maintaining oral and dental health, the proper way of brushing teeth, the proper consumption habit including the effect of excessive sugar consumption on dental health, and socialization as to how to use Caries Monitoring Book as a medium that can help parents and teachers in monitoring the students' activities in maintaining dental health. After the counseling session, the knowledge of the participants was evaluated. This was carried out through a posttest. The participants were also given certificates as a form of appreciation.
The questionnaire used in this study has been tested for its validity. The validity test for the questionnaire is done by finding a correlation between the scores of each question (r result) with the r value in the table. The validity test is done twice until all questions are considered valid. Each question is declared valid if r results have a positive value and r results >r table, that is at the significance level of 5%. For n = x then the value of r table = x. To be declared valid, all questions must have a positive r value and value >x. The results of the validity show all valid questions.
| Results|| |
The type of program evaluation that we used for this empowerment program was formative evaluation. It is because the evaluation was conducted when the program was on going by measuring if the delivered materials were well received by the participants, leading to the improved knowledge on dental health.
The program's indicator of success is when the knowledge of the mothers and female teachers of the 1st–2nd grade students increase, which can be seen by comparing the scores from pre- and post-tests. If >70% of the participants were able to answer correctly in the posttest, then the program was considered successful.
| Discussion|| |
Health promotion has been defined as a process that empowers people to change their behavior and lifestyle and creates and supports environments that contribute to healthy living., It takes on the complicated web of health-related behavior and is often defined as a combination of health education, economic, organizational, and environmental support for healthy behaviors in individual communities. Health promotion aims to enhance the participation of individuals to improve their living circumstances which contribute to health.
Health promotion for children needs to include five pillars: (1) Building healthy public policy that takes into account child health concerns, (2) Creating supportive environments that allow children to make healthy choices, (3) Strengthening communities such that children feel safe and that there is a sense of equity, (4) Reorienting health services to ensure that children's health care is easily accessed and that service needs are met, and (5) Developing personal knowledge and skills so that children receive appropriate health knowledge that support physical, emotional, and social development.
Empowerment is a term that is used frequently in relation to health promotion. This empowerment program trains mother as a parents at home, and teacher as parents at school to deliver the oral health message to students. If the students are expected to change their behavior, as is often the aim of health promotion, it is better that everyone works together to achieve that aim.
In the implementation, this program did not only involve the mothers of the students, but also the female teachers as a system that helps monitoring the students in their activities in regards to dental health. The evaluation, which was conducted during the program, was carried out by comparing the scores from pre- and post-tests. This program went well and the mothers as well as the teachers participated with enthusiasm. The evaluation result indicates that the participants were able to comprehend the importance of dental health, the truth behind the myths believed by the community, the proper way of brushing teeth, and how to use the Caries Monitoring Book as a medium in monitoring the students' behavior in regards to maintaining oral and dental health. Starting program in population with multimedia tools more favourable, because a multimedia instructional environment has an enormous potential to improve the people capability to learn. This way, the monitoring of oral and dental health can be done by both parties, the mothers and teachers, and therefore can be more controlled.
| Conclusion|| |
The program Local Myth and Facts Approach Apps can serve as an educational means regarding oral and dental health for the parents and teachers of students. It can also build cooperation between parents and teachers in monitoring the students' activities in maintaining oral and dental health, leading to overcoming the risk factors of caries among students, particularly those from the 1st and 2nd grade who are still under parental supervision.
The authors would like to thank the Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Trihono. National Basic Health Research (RIKESDAS). Health Research and Development Agency; 2013.
Wiradona I, Suwarsono, Sunarjo L, Rimbyastuti H. Effect of Morinda citrifolia juice on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. J Dent Health 2015;2:8-13.
Petersen PE, Ogawa H. Prevention of dental caries through the use of fluoride – The WHO approach. Community Dent Health 2016;33:66-8.
Nutbeam D, McGill B, Premkumar P. Improving health literacy in community populations: A review of progress. Health Promot Int 2018;33:4-9.
Doyle EI, Ward SE, Early J. The Process of Community Health Education and Promotion. Vol. 25. Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press; 2018. p. 3-6.
Bowen HR, Fincher C. Goals: The intended outcomes of higher education. In: Investment in Learning. Vol. 16. New York: Routledge; 2018. p. 31-60.
Laverack G. Health Promotion Practice: Building Empowered Communities. London: Open University Press; 2007.
Kohler CL, Grimley D, Reynolds K. Theoretical approaches guiding the development and implementation of health promotion programs. In: Handbook of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Boston: Springer; 1999. p. 23-49.
Naidoo J, Wills J. Health Promotion: Foundation for Practice. London: Halk; 1994.
Moyse K. Promoting Health in Children and Young People: The Role of the Nurse. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing; 2009.
Fakhruddin KS, Lawrence HP, Kenny DJ, Locker D. Impact of treated and untreated dental injuries on the quality of life of Ontario school children. Dent Traumatol 2008;24:309-13.