|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 163-167
Oral hygiene behavior of acrylic removable partial denture usage in Seuneubok District, West Aceh: A cross-sectional study
Liana Rahmayani, Pocut A Sofya, Poppy Andriany, Cut S Jingga
Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Syiah Kuala-Aceh, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
|Date of Submission||21-Jul-2018|
|Date of Acceptance||06-Nov-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||28-Mar-2020|
Dr. Liana Rahmayani
Sp.Pros, Department of Prosthodontic, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Syiah Kuala-Aceh, Indonesia, Kopelma Darussalam, Banda Aceh-23111. Telp: 0651-7555183, Phone: +6185220138456
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: To evaluate the relationship of oral hygiene behavior and maintenance with gender, age, and duration of acrylic removable denture usage in Seuneubok District community, West Aceh. Materials and Methods: An analytic descriptive research was conducted with the sample of 97 people as research subjects. The subjects comprised 65 women and 32 men who were selected using purposive sampling technique and measured using questionnaire. The subjects signed informed consent and then continued by interviewing the questionnaire question. Pearson’s chi-squared test value was obtained at P ≤ 0.05 for the relationship between the behavior of maintaining oral hygiene in removable partial denture users between men and women. Results: The results showed that 14 subjects (15%) were good for maintaining dental and oral hygiene, 74 subjects (76%) were poor, and only 9 subjects (9%) were not good. It showed that the value of P was 0.038 (significant difference P ≤ 0.05) for the behavior relationship with the duration of removable partial dentures usage and P = 0.597 was associated with age. Conclusion: Community maintenance of oral hygiene was poor in studied population. There was a relationship between the behavior of maintaining oral hygiene with gender and duration of dentures usage, but there was no significant relationship with the age.
Keywords: Acrylic Removable Partial Denture, Behavior, Maintenance, Oral Hygiene
|How to cite this article:|
Rahmayani L, Sofya PA, Andriany P, Jingga CS. Oral hygiene behavior of acrylic removable partial denture usage in Seuneubok District, West Aceh: A cross-sectional study. J Int Oral Health 2020;12:163-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Rahmayani L, Sofya PA, Andriany P, Jingga CS. Oral hygiene behavior of acrylic removable partial denture usage in Seuneubok District, West Aceh: A cross-sectional study. J Int Oral Health [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 May 28];12:163-7. Available from: http://www.jioh.org/text.asp?2020/12/2/163/281483
| Introduction|| |
Tooth loss is a major problem that can cause impaired mastication, phonetic, and esthetic function. The loss of some of the original teeth from the dental arch can be replaced by placing removable partial denture. According to Ferro et al., partial removable denture is an artificial tooth replacing one or more teeth that have been lost and supported by teeth and mucosa that may remove and inserted by the patient. The continuous use of partial dentures and unsaved cleansing of the oral cavity and denture may cause plaque accumulated on both the original tooth directly contacting with the surface of the artificial tooth and the original tooth in the opposite arch. The accumulation of plaque which may be left can lead to caries and inflammation of periodontal tissue leading to excessive alveolar bone pocket and resorption and lesions of the oral mucosa.
When a person decides to use artificial teeth, the awareness to keep dental and oral hygiene should not be forgotten. Regular daily denture cleansing should be done to prevent plaque to accumulating and also to clean the food debris from the surface. Artificial teeth should be removed from the mouth at night to allow adequate resting of the mouth supporting tissue. Continuous denture wearing may cause some reactions to the tissues because the mucosa beneath the denture will be covered for a long time period, thus blocking the oral mucosal clearance by the tongue and saliva whereby result in the attachment of microorganisms.
Gulcan et al. stated that of 69 people, who maintained oral hygiene by brushing their teeth with toothbrushes and toothpaste incidences of 36.2% once daily, 31.9% did so three times daily, 21.8% once a week, and 10.1% rarely. But this study was conducted on the general public, whether it is denture users or not. According to another research, about 73.6% of patients with denture maintained oral hygiene by brushing the remaining teeth using water, brush tooth, and toothpaste performed twice daily, and 46 denture wearer patients controlled to dentist after denture installation to maintain oral hygiene and soft tissue.,
The denture hygiene and oral cavity of the removable denture remained to be considered in order to achieve maximum hygiene and to support overall oral health., Maupome et al. stated that young patients have good oral hygiene and also in patients receiving support from the family, friends, and companions. Use of artificial teeth not accompanied by maintenance any remaining teeth will have a significant impact on oral health, such as caries, inflammation of the periodontal tissues, and lesions of the oral mucosa. Therefore, people with denture should pay attention to oral hygiene and denture.,, This situation is no exception to people with denture in Seuneubok Aceh Barat.
Based on the observations made, many community lived in there wearing acrylic removable partial denture but have not been studied. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to know how the maintenance of dentures and oral hygiene behavior in community with acrylic removable partial denture in Seuneubok Aceh Barat.
| Materials and Methods|| |
An analytical descriptive retrospective study was made among removable partial denture wearers from April to May 2015. The population in this study was the entire community resided in Seuneubok District, Meulaboh, West Aceh.
Determination of the subject using purposive sampling technique, subjects’ selection conducted on the basis of consideration of the researchers themselves. In the Seuneubok District, there are 4367 people and are divided into five hamlets. Subjects were taken as many as 97 subjects and the subjects comprised 65 women and 32 men. The inclusion criteria of the study included subjects who were residing in Seuneubok District, subjects who were using acrylic removable partial denture, and subjects who were willing to fill out informed consent sheet. The exclusion criteria of the study included the subjects who had physical limitations and subjects who manufactured the acrylic removable partial denture other than in dentist practice. For the type of data taken from this study is the primary data obtained directly by the researchers using questionnaires. The standard questionnaire designed and studied refers to a reference conducted by the Peracini et al.
Questionnaires were framed to see the description of a situation objectively and to determine the relationship of oral hygiene behavior and maintenance with gender, age, and duration of acrylic removable denture usage in Seuneubok District community, West Aceh.
Collecting data begin by searching the data of research subjects in accordance with inclusion criteria on dentist practices in West Aceh. Informed consents were taken from participants by explaining the purpose of this research. Subsequently the subject will be continued by interviewing the questionnaire question. In this study, subjects were asked to answer the questionnaire to see whether behavior is good or not good in maintaining oral hygiene during the use of denture.
Data analysis used Pearson chi-square test and continued with Fisher’s Exact (2-sided) test, with alpha p value 0.05 (IBM, Chicago, Version 16). The data analysis was used to determine the relationship of oral hygiene behavior and maintenance with gender, age, and duration of acrylic removable denture usage in Seuneubok District community, West Aceh.
| Results|| |
The research subjects were the Seuneubok community who used removable partial dentures of 97 subjects according to the inclusion criteria.
[Table 1] shows that of the 97 subjects 65 (67%) were women with most dentures in Gampong Seuneubok Meulaboh Aceh Barat, whereas 32 (33%) were men.
[Table 2] shows that there were total 74 (76%) subjects who used removable partial dentures with less good maintenance, 14 (15%) subjects who were with good care, and 9 (9%) subjects who were not good.
|Table 2: Oral hygiene behavior during the use of removable partial denture|
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Subjects of male gender have no subjects with good maintenance (0%) in maintaining dental and oral hygiene, poor maintenance as much as 25 people (78.1%), and poor maintenance as much as 7 people (21.9%). The subjects of female gender with good maintenance as much as 14 people (21.5%), poor maintenance as much as 49 people (75.4%), and poor maintenance as much as 2 people (3.1%). Pearson’s chi-squared test value was obtained at P = 0.001 for the relationship between the behavior of maintaining oral hygiene in removable partial denture users between men and women [Table 3].
|Table 3: Oral hygiene behavior during the use of removable partial denture by gender|
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[Table 4] shows that six (27.3%) subjects aged 20–30 years were found with good maintenance. Twenty-three (79.3%) subjects aged between 41 and 50 years were mostly found with poor maintenance. Four (19%) subjects aged 51–60 years were found with poor maintenance. The value of P = 0.597 showed no significant relationship between oral hygiene behavior and the age.
|Table 4: Oral hygiene behavior during the use of removable partial denture by age|
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[Table 5] shows that subjects with good behavior of maintenance were found to be highest in subjects who used partial dentures for 1 year of 7 people (26.9%). Subjects with not good behavior were most prevalent in subjects who had used denture for 5 years (20.8%). Behavior was less good found as many as 19 people (73.1%) on the use of denture for 1 year. The value of P = 0.038 showed a significant relationship between behavior and duration of denture usage.
|Table 5: Oral hygiene behavior during the use of removable partial denture by length time|
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| Discussion|| |
Removable partial dentures are a device that serves to restore one or more of the original tooth that has been lost, supported by the remaining original tooth and mucosa beneath the denture base., Partial acrylic denture is the most widely used for denture today because of the same color as the gingiva color and not toxic., However, the unauthorized use of denture hygiene of the oral cavity and denture can lead to the buildup of food scraps in both the original and artificial teeth, which will be a contributing factor in the formation of plaque and a site for the growth of microorganisms that will lead to caries, stomatitis, serostomia, and periodontal disease. The placement of the prosthesis in the oral cavity also results the change of environmental conditions in which the prosthesis becomes the site of colonization of oral microorganisms. Microbial plaque on removable prostheses covering the palate area causes denture stomatitis in 69% of denture wearers. Therefore, the maintenance of dental and oral hygiene and denture is very important in maintaining healthy surrounding tissue in the oral cavity.,
Based on [Table 1] in this study subjects 65 women (67%) who mostly use acrylic removable partial denture than men who only 32 people (33%). This is in line with research in 2010, Magdarina states that women are more using artificial teeth than men. Women are more likely to use artificial teeth because they have more attention to appearance and aesthetic importance., In addition, the women population in Seuneubok District is equal to 2204 people as compared to men of 2163 people. The subjects who used partial dentures were more commonly found between the ages of 41–50 years as many as 29 people (30%) with the length time 1 year use in the 1–5 years range. In the age group of 41–50 years including adulthood where tooth loss occurs more commonly in that age group, so partially removable partial dentures are most needed to replace some of the missing teeth.,
[Table 2] shows that the majority of subjects in this study were poor in maintaining dental and oral hygiene during using acrylic removable partial dentures, as many as 74 people (76%). Many people have received instructions from the dentist, but do not care about the denture’s hygiene and oral cavity. But the lack of instructions from the dentist will also cause the subject does not understand in maintaining the hygiene of teeth, mouth and denture. The poor of oral hygiene can have an effect on the soft tissue of the denture user, one of which is the occurrence of denture stomatitis because of the attachment of Candida to the less clean denture. According to Mubarak et al. denture-related stomatitis associated with Candida is the most common form of candidiasis, which is of about 60%–65% in a subject wearing denture. Clinically found in the poor oral hygiene that the number of Candida sp. colonies showed differences In the subject of RPD users, self-cured acrylic resins contain more colonies of Candida sp. than the subjects of heat-cured acrylic resin users.,
[Table 3] shows that male subjects were absent with good maintenance (0%) in maintaining dental and oral hygiene, less poor maintenance as 25 people (78.1%), and not good or poor maintenance as 7 people (21.9%). Female subjects were found with good maintenance as 14 people (21.5%), less poor maintenance as 49 people (75.4%), and poor maintenance as 2 people (3.1%). There is a significant difference between gender and oral hygiene and denture hygiene. This is because women are more care and thorough in maintaining the hygiene of the oral cavity and denture. This study is in accordance with Rahmayani et al. who concluded that women are more concerned than men about looking for a denture treatment. This is because women are more concerned about esthetics.,
In [Table 4] most of the subjects by age group tend to be less well in maintaining the dental and oral hygiene and most common in the 41–50 years of age group as 23 people (24%), whereas poor maintenance was most prevalent between the 51 and 60 years of age group as four people (4%), due to reduction in motoric ability, impaired vision or physical condition that has been weak so that the subject has difficulty in maintaining oral hygiene and denture hygiene and affect their habit in maintaining the hygiene of their mouth.
The results of this study indicate that subjects with acrylic removable partial denture with 1–5 years of usage tend to be less good in maintaining denture hygiene and oral hygiene, most found in subjects who have been using denture for 1 year as many as 19 people (73.1%), poor maintenance was most prevalent in 5 years of usage. There was a significant relationship between oral hygiene behavior and duration of denture usage. However, good or poor dental hygiene does not depend on the duration of denture wear, but it depends on the individual’s knowledge and awareness in maintaining oral hygiene during the use of removable partial denture. It is also important to acknowledge that the patient’s personal hygiene procedures and motivation together with a supervised oral hygiene program may also play an important role for preventing any possible deterioration effects on the health of the oral tissues.
Limitations of this study are that the data obtained were not collected based on educational background and occupation which could identified as the factors that affected the maintenance of oral and dental hygiene during the use of acrylic removable partial denture.
Maintenance and oral hygiene behavior of community with acrylic removable partial dentures was in West Aceh Seuneubok mostly in less good category. Maintenance of oral hygiene in women is good as compared to men, whereas by age, the age group between 20–30 years with good maintenance. There was a relationship between the behavior of maintaining oral hygiene with gender and age, but there is no significant relationship with the duration of dentures usage. Suggest the improvement in coordination between dentist and other health personnel in order to provide health promotion on the importance of maintaining oral hygiene in denture users. It is also advisable to the dentist to provide instructions on how to keep the hygiene of the denture properly. It is hoped that people who use removable partial denture further raise awareness and care in maintaining denture hygiene, remaining teeth and soft tissues of the mouth.
Ethical policy and institutional review board statement
Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Faculty of Dentistry, Syiah Kuala University, Aceh, Indonesia (Protocol no. 105/KE/FKG/2015).
We would like to thank village head who has given permission for this research and our subject for their participation in this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]