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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
September-October 2018
Volume 10 | Issue 5
Page Nos. 211-266

Online since Wednesday, October 24, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Angiogenesis in head and neck cancer: An overview p. 211
Roopan Prakash, Vishnu Mohan, Pillai Arun Gopinathan, Manoj S Nair, J T Ramani Bai
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_192_18  
Angiogenesis is a critical player in many pathologic processes, especially in neoplasms. Unregulated angiogenesis is thought to be indispensable in tumor growth and metastasis. Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. The growing tumor mass requires an adequate amount of oxygen and nutrients which are supplied by complex network of tumor blood microvessels. The identification of molecules involved in the regulation of angiogenesis may provide new possibilities for the development of drugs suitable for inhibition of angiogenesis.
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Dental service marketing p. 216
Osamah Mohammed Al Mugeiren, Jamal Abdullah Al Sanea
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_194_18  
The purpose of this paper was to review the dental service marketing and the use of social media marketing within the field of dentistry. The literature was searched using appropriate keywords related to dental service marketing and social media. The concept of dental service marketing reviewed under 8Ps (product elements, place and time, price and other expenses, promotion and education, physical environment, people, process, and productivity and quality) and the role of social media in marketing were briefly reviewed and reported. To become a successful practitioner, dental professionals need to understand the theory and practice of marketing strategies. The eight “Ps” of the service marketing can be effectively utilized for successful marketing of the dental services. Social media has a lot of potential for marketing dental services in a cost-effective manner to influence the modern dental practice.
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Hormonal fingerprints: A potential screening tool p. 220
Rakhi Issrani, Abdalwhab MA Alzwiri, Namdeo Prabhu, Ahmed Shawkat Hashem
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_151_18  
The ratio between second and fourth digit lengths (2D:4D ratio) is termed as hormonal fingerprint. This ratio is sexually dimorphic and can be measured by various methods using digital vernier calipers, radiographs, photographs, photocopies, and scanners. In the medical scenario, 2D:4D ratio is used as a biological marker for predicting and diagnosis of many metabolic disorders mainly coronary heart disease and autism, whereas, in dentistry, this method is still in blooming stage. This article highlights the role of hormonal fingerprints as potential biomarkers in early diagnosis, prognosis, and early lifestyle interventions for many dental diseases.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH Top

Nickel, copper, and chromium release by CuNi-titanium orthodontic archwires is dependent on the pH media p. 224
Tatiana Paganelli Rodrigues Furlan, Jurandir Antonio Barbosa, Roberta Tarkany Basting
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_186_18  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and chromium (Cr) ions released by Ni archwires with the addition of Cu to their composition CuNi-titanium in neutral and acid media. Materials and Methods: The 0.016” cross-section heat-activated archwires evaluated were Ni titanium (Ti) Memory Wire (American Orthodontics), Damon Optimal-Force Cu Ni-Ti (Ormco), Tanzo Cu NiTi (American Orthodontics), and Flexy NiTi Cu (Orthometric). Ten archwires were used from each commercial brand, obtaining two segments measuring 2 cm (centimeters) from the most posterior portion of the archwires. The archwires remained immersed in neutral or acid solutions for a time interval of 7 days. The samples were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry to evaluate Cr and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry to evaluate Ni and Cu. Two-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey tests were applied to the data. Results: The immersion of the NiTi Memory Wire and the Flexy NiTi Cu archwires in both solutions presented significantly higher mean Ni concentration values than the other archwires (P = 0.0001). The immersion of the Tanzo Cu NiTi and the Flexy NiTi Cu archwires in the neutral solution yielded a higher concentration value for detectable Cu than that of the other groups (P = 0.0055). In the acid solution, only Damon Optimal-Force Cu Ni-Ti presented no experimental segment with detectable Cu concentration. Cr release could not be quantified. Conclusions: Metal ion release by archwires is dependent on the commercial brand and the immersion solution.
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Oral hygiene status, self-reported oral malodor, oral hygiene practices, and oral health knowledge: A cross-sectional study in a group of Muslim Thai pregnant women p. 229
Supawadee Naorungroj, Jaranya Hunsrisakhun, Supitcha Talungchit
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_184_18  
Objective: The aim of this study is to determine oral hygiene status, self-reported oral malodor, oral hygiene practices, oral health knowledge, and the differences across educational levels in a group of Muslim Thai pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Yaring, Pattani, Thailand. A total of 88 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. The enrolled patients answered a self-administered questionnaire comprising sociodemographic data, self-perceived oral malodor, oral hygiene practices, as well as their knowledge about the causes and effects of gingivitis during the prenatal period. Gingival health, plaque deposit, and tongue coating were assessed using the modified gingival index (MGI), the plaque index (PI), and the Winkel index (WTCI), respectively. The associations of educational levels with clinical measures and questionnaire responses were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The pregnant women had moderate levels of gingival inflammation (MGI = 1.36 ± 0.40), visible plaque deposit (PI = 1.43 ± 0.47), and thinly dispersed tongue coating (WTCI = 5.40 ± 2.82). MGI significantly decreased as educational levels increased (P = 0.041). Although 90% of the participants had knowledge pertaining to good oral hygiene habits, a high number of participants reported a short brushing time (77%), irregular tooth brushing after meals (66%), irregular tongue cleaning (46%), and a bad breath experience (71%). Furthermore, a significant number of pregnant women lacked knowledge of or misunderstood oral-systemic health relationships. Oral hygiene practices and oral health knowledge were not significantly different across educational levels. Conclusion: The majority of Muslim Thai pregnant women had fair oral hygiene, improper self-oral hygiene care, and inadequate knowledge of the importance of oral-systemic health relationships.
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Effect of chewing gums containing probiotics and xylitol on oral health in children: A randomized controlled trial p. 237
Kanwardeep Kaur, Sridhar Nekkanti, Mridula Madiyal, Prashant Choudhary
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_170_18  
Aims: Probiotics have been proven to be beneficial for general and systemic health. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated the use of probiotics for the prevention or treatment of dental caries and gingival diseases. Lactobacillus reuteri is believed to possess anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotics and xylitol on the salivary Streptococcus mutans counts, plaque, and gingival scores after the intervention. Materials and Methods: In our 3-week, short-term trial, 40 healthy 7–12-year-old children consumed two commercially available chewing gums; Group 1 (BioGaia™ ProDentis) and Group 2 (Orbit®Gum, Wrigley's). Individuals consumed three chewing gums daily, immediately after major meals for 20 min each. The probiotic gum contained two strains of L. reuteri (ATCC 55730 and ATCC PTA 5282) along with artificial sweetener, sorbitol, and the xylitol gum consisted of both xylitol and sorbitol. Pre- and post-intervention whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected and cultured on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar plates to check for colony forming units/ml of Streptococcus mutans. Plaque and gingival scores were also recorded at pre- and post-intervention appointments. Results: Following the intervention, the salivary Streptococcus mutans counts decreased in both groups. There was a significant reduction in plaque and gingival scores at postintervention examination. Conclusion: Probiotics can be used as an alternative to xylitol in the preventive regimen for dental caries or control in case of high caries risk.
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Influence of chemical conditioning on bonding precoated orthodontic brackets to fluorosed enamel surfaces using self-etch primer p. 244
Ibrahim Alshahrani, Khalid M Abdelaziz, Moshabab A Asiry, Afnan Alayesh
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_190_18  
Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of precoated orthodontic brackets bonded to chemically conditioned, fluorosed enamel surfaces using self-etch primer. Materials and Methods: Three groups of extracted premolars respectively with no (G1), mild (G2), and moderate (G3) fluorosis were recruited for this study. The buccal surfaces of teeth in each group were conditioned in three subgroups with air-water spray (SG1), 35% phosphoric acid (SG2), and 20% citric acid (SG3) before bonding precoated metal orthodontic brackets by the aid of self-etch primer. The bonded brackets in each subgroup were stressed on a universal testing machine to determine their shear bond strength. The debonded surfaces of each specimen were then assessed to determine the adhesive remnant index (ARI) in each subgroup. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS software (SPSS version 20.0, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Teeth with mild and moderate fluorosis in G2, G3 provided lower bond strength than normal teeth in G1 (Tukey's, P < 0.05). Enamel surfaces conditioned with phosphoric acid in SG2 offered the highest bond strength in comparison to those conditioned with water and citric acid in SG1 and SG3 (Tukey's, P < 0.05). No statistical difference (Chi-squared, H = 16.48) was detected between the tested subgroups in terms of ARI. Conclusion: The presence of enamel fluorosis adversely affects the shear bond strength of the precoated metal brackets when self-etch primer is considered for bonding. Conditioning the mildly fluorosed enamel surfaces for 60 s with phosphoric acid restores the clinically acceptable brackets bond strength values.
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Incidence of endodontically treated first permanent molar teeth among Saudi children subpopulation p. 250
Abdulaziz Saad Abumelha, Atheer Ahmad Alhammadi, Eman Abdulrahman Alshahrani, Zahra Abdullah Alsafi, Tasneem S Ain
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_173_18  
Aim and Objectives: A study was carried out among children to assess the incidence of endodontically treated first permanent molar (FPM) teeth during 4 years in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A convenient sample of 65 children, willing to participate was included in the study. Sixty-five children were selected for the study of age 6 years old, having erupted FPM teeth in all quadrants. The panoramic radiographs of the subjects were evaluated for sound, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT), or endodontically treated FPM teeth. The same subjects were followed for 4 years and their orthopantomograms (OPGs) were taken at the age of 10 years. Their OPGs were again examined for sound, DMFT, and endodontically treated teeth. The mothers of these children were asked one question about their awareness regarding the importance of FPM teeth of their children. Data were put to statistical analysis. Results: It was found that all subjects at 6 years of age were having sound FPM teeth in all the 4 quadrants of their oral cavity. The overall incidence of endodontically treated FPMs was found to be 1.2% at age 10 years of the subjects. Conclusion: It was concluded that the incidence of endodontically treated FPM teeth was 1.2%. The incidence of root canal treatment was found to be more in the children whose mothers were not aware about the importance of FPM teeth.
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Vitamin C supplementation as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A clinical and biochemical study p. 256
U Raghavendra, Anupama Rao, Shankar Rajesh Kashyap, Jyothi D'Souza, Vijaya Kumar, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Neevan D'Souza
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_158_18  
Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of Vitamin C supplementation, a known antioxidant, on periodontal health in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) levels. Materials and Methods: A sample of 50 patients diagnosed with CP and 50 healthy controls were selected for the present study. Fifty CP patients were further randomly divided into two groups. CP1 (25 patients received nonsurgical therapy alone) and CP2 (25 patients received Vitamin C supplementation (1500 mg/day) as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy). Clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI) gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), pocket depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded at 1-month and 2-month post therapy. Salivary TAOC levels were measured by Koracevic's method at baseline and 2 months' post therapy. Results: Patients with CP showed lower salivary TAOC compared to control group (P < 0.001). There was a highly significant reduction in all the clinical parameters and salivary TAOC levels in CP1 and CP2 at 1-month and 2-month post therapy. CP2 group showed significant reduction in GBI score (P < 0.001) but failed to report any statistically significant improvement in PI, GI, PD, CAL, and in salivary TAOC levels compare CP1 group. Conclusion: Vitamin C supplementation showed significant reduction in GBI score at 1-month and 2-month post therapy but failed to show any additional benefit in reduction of PI, GI, PD, CAL, and in salivary TAOC levels compare to nonsurgical therapy. Further long-term investigation needs to be conducted to validate the results of the present study.
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The relationship between the consumption of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and the presence of micronuclei in the oral mucosa p. 262
Jéssica Pegoraro, C M Marlon Dickemann, S Iuri Martins, Laura Kirsch, L Ana Carolina Ecker, Paula Wiethölter, Carolina Barreto Mozzini
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_162_18  
Aims: The risk factors for cancer can be internal or external to the body, and the consumption of chimarrão has been recently cited as a potential influencing factor. This herbal infusion, ingested at high temperatures, and chemical carcinogenesis may contribute to cell mutation. Among the existing methods used to identify cellular alterations, the evaluation of the presence of micronuclei stands out. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between the consumption of chimarrão and the presence of micronuclei in the oral mucosa that evaluates the extent of damage that an aggressor agent may cause in the oral cavity. Material and Methods: Data collection included the collection of cells of the buccal mucosa and the application of a questionnaire on the consumption habits of 120 individuals, among them students, faculty, and employees of an academic institution. The collected cells were fixed, stained with Giemsa and analyzed by scanning optical microscopy. Results: The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, Spearman's correlation test, and Pearson's correlation test (Statistical Program BioEstat, 2007). The results showed that there are no statistically significant differences regarding the presence of micronuclei between the periodic consumption of chimarrão and no consumption at all, as well as between daily consumption and periodic consumption. Conclusions: Consuming chimarrão does not represent a risk factor for the significant increase in the number of micronuclei in the oral mucosa.
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