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   Table of Contents - Current issue
November-December 2017
Volume 9 | Issue 6
Page Nos. 243-296

Online since Wednesday, December 20, 2017

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Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization Highly accessed article p. 243
Kalyana Chakravarthy Pentapati, Sravan Kumar Yeturu, Hanan Siddiq
Aims: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the pooled prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among children. Methods: Three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL) were searched till January 1, 2017, for the prevalence of MIH among children. The heterogeneity of the publications was evaluated using I2 statistics. Two trained reviewers conducted risk of bias assessment with nine item checklist for prevalence studies. Results: Analysis of the included publications revealed a pooled prevalence of 11.24 (confidence interval = 9.23–13.45) with the use of quality effects model. Heterogeneity among the included publications was high. The risk of bias assessment showed that majority of them were in the low-risk category. Conclusions: MIH is a common problem and one in 10 children could be affected by MIH.
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Knowledge of oral health benefits of tea in an urban dental patient population p. 251
Michelle A Wheater, Ana Barajas
Aims: Much has been written about the health benefits of green tea in both the scientific and lay literature. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey study was to determine dental patient knowledge of the composition of green tea and attitudes regarding the potential oral health benefits of green tea consumption. Materials and Methods: A nine-item questionnaire, with several items in a multipart format, was distributed in paper and pencil form to a convenience sample of dental patients in the waiting area of an urban dental school. Data were entered into Qualtrics Research Suite software and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square with significance at P < 0.05. Results: Three hundred and thirty adult volunteers completed the questionnaire. The majority of the respondents were aware that tea is a popular drink worldwide, and nearly half of the respondents drink tea often. Those who drink tea prefer hot green tea and consume it mainly for the taste. Respondents knew that tea contains antioxidants but were less aware that tea contains polyphenols and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Although the majority of respondents agreed that green tea is beneficial to oral health, responses were generally split on agreement that it prevents caries or halitosis or protects tooth enamel. For the majority of the questions, there was no difference in responses relative to age or consumption of tea. Conclusion: While respondents generally agreed that green tea is beneficial to oral health, they do not take green tea, or EGCG supplements or use commercially available oral health products that contain green tea.
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Public knowledge and perception regarding endodontic treatment in a Saudi population p. 255
Muhannad Aldawsari, Hadi M Alamri
Aim: The intent of this study was to assess the public's awareness regarding the importance of preserving natural dentition by investigating whether they prefer endodontic treatment versus a single tooth implant and to assess their knowledge and perception regarding the root canal treatment procedure itself. Materials and Methods: An electronic survey was sent out to the public throughout widely used social networks in Saudi Arabia, surveys excluded from the study were those filled by participants under the age of 18 and participants who work in a dental-related profession. Statistical analysis was done to test for significance. Results: Over 1000 participants have filled the survey, overall, the majority preferred endodontic treatment over implant replacement, however, there seems to be a misconception regarding the endodontic procedure, mainly in terms of the amount of pain during treatment and the number of visits required to complete the treatment. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it can be speculated that most of the treatments done were performed by less experienced clinicians, indicating the necessity to further indicate the referring system followed by practices, and the quality of treatment provided to the public.
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Differences and similarities of third molar impaction in the mandible and in the maxilla p. 258
Hasan Onur Şimşek, Nurgül Kömerik, Cansu Gül Koca
Aims: Characteristics of erupted and impacted third molars in the mandible and the maxilla were compared. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 individuals over the age of 20 were included. The eruption status of the third molars in both jaws were examined on orthopantomographs by measuring the distance from the line tangent to the highest points of occlusal cusps of the third molar to that of the adjacent second molar. The presence of available space for the eruption was determined by the ratio of the mesiodistal length of the third molar crown to the length of the alveolar arch distal to second molars. The angle formed between the intersected lines tangential to the highest points of occlusal cusps of the second and third molars were used to measure the degree of third molar inclination. The analysis of variance and Student's t-tests were performed to determine the differences between each class structured according to parameters related to third molars. A Pearson correlation test was performed to determine any correlation between parameters. Results: In the mandible available space for the eruption of third molars was smaller, and the mesiodistal lengths of the third molars were longer as opposed to their maxillary counterparts. In both jaws, vertical position was the most frequent inclination both in the impacted and erupted states. On the other hand, even in the presence of favorable parameters for eruption (teeth having both vertical orientation and sufficient eruption space), 26.7% of mandibular and 59.2% of maxillary third molars had a chance to fully erupt. The presence of favorable parameters does not warrant full eruption of third molars in both jaws. Conclusions: We considered the age of 20 as the stable time point for the eruption and angulation movements of the third molars and therefore included subjects older than 20 years of age in the present study. Likewise, the absence of favorable parameters does not always lead to third molar impaction.
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Prophylactic antibiotics after extraction: Needed or not needed? p. 265
M Deepa, Deepthi Mony, Tusha Ratra
Aim: Our study aimed to evaluate the need to prescribe antibiotics before every extraction even in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized clinical trial was done on 483 patients who were indicated for undergoing extraction under local anesthesia. The patients were evaluated for signs of infection that included pain, edema, fever, pus discharge, erythema, and decreased interincisal opening. They were evaluated on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th postoperative day for the same. The patient was considered to have an active infection if they showed pain and any other two signs of infections. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study. Results: Out of the 483 patients evaluated two patients had pain and showed slight edema and erythema. These patients were considered as having an active infection and were prescribed therapeutic antibiotics. Conclusion: In our study, 0.4% showed signs of active infection after undergoing extraction without prophylactic antibiotics. Further studies have to be undertaken to create definitive guidelines for prescribing antibiotics after extraction.
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Effectiveness of functional regulator II appliance in producing skeletal and dental changes and its permanence in class II patients compared to a control group: A retrospective cephalometric study p. 269
S Divya, H C Kiran Kumar, K Sadashiva Shetty
Aims: Class II skeletal and dental disparities due to mandibular retrusion have been termed as a major type of facial eccentricity. Functional appliance therapy is one of the treatment modalities aimed to correct the retrusive mandible during growth. We aimed at comparing the treatment changes between patients treated with functional regulator (FR) II appliance of Frankel and untreated class II control groups and to evaluate the permanence and long-term stability of this treatment in Indian population. Materials and Methods: The treatment group (FR II/study group) comprised 10 patients who were evaluated at three stages: pretreatment (T1), immediate postfunctional (T2at 18 months), and long-term posttreatment (T3at 6 years). The control group comprised 10 untreated class II patients under observation for >4 years. Intergroup comparison was done using Student's t-test, to test for statistical significance. Results: The FR II group also showed a significant decrease in ANB value, indicating a strong normalization of sagittal jaw discrepancy and increase in lower anterior facial height when compared with class II control group. Further, dentoalveolar changes had significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions: This retrospective cephalometric study indicates that FR II appliance therapy in skeletal class II malocclusion with retrognathic mandible during active growth phase brings about the correction of anteroposterior maxillo-mandibular relationship that remains stable over long term.
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Position of apical foramina in permanent maxillary anterior teeth representative of an Indian population: An in vitro Study p. 279
Preetham Jain, Saravanakarthikeyan Balasubramanian, Jothilatha Sundaramurthy, Velmurugan Natanasabapathy
Aims: Knowledge of apical anatomy is crucial in performing root canal treatment, and studies on the anatomy of the root apex are an area of interest to the endodontist. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and location of apical foramen (AF) of human extracted permanent maxillary anterior teeth in Indian population by direct observation under a Dental Operating Surgical Microscope (DOM). Materials and Methods: A total of 285 maxillary anterior teeth comprising of 100 central incisors, 85 lateral incisors, and 100 canines from various patients reporting to our hospital based institution were studied. All the specimens were carefully observed with the naked eye followed by DOM evaluation. The root anatomy of each tooth was evaluated for the following parameters: the number of roots, the frequency, and location of the AF. Results: All the maxillary anterior teeth studied were observed to be single rooted. The AF displayed a central exit in 84% of maxillary central incisors, 76% of maxillary lateral incisors, and 15% of maxillary canines. Conclusions: Most of the maxillary central incisors and maxillary lateral incisors displayed a central exit of the AF whereas lateral apical exit was more common in maxillary canines. These morphological findings obtained with the aid of DOM are clinically significant and are to be considered while rendering endodontic treatment of maxillary anterior teeth in Indian population.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental students toward human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome of AMC Dental College and Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat: A cross-sectional study p. 284
Sona Sheth, Ashish S Sharma, Shreya K Mehta, Hamza Kachwala, Nidhi Parker, Devarshi Pandya
Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of the dental students regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV testing in routine dental practice. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional survey, in which 267 students from 3rd year, 4th year, and interns of B.D.S at AMC Dental College and Hospital participated voluntarily. A close-ended questionnaire with multiple-choice questions was designed for this survey. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis using SPSS version 20 software. Results: In this study, we found that >90% of the participants have overall adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS, there were inadequacies in terms of testing, treatment, and therapy. The participants showed positive attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), but the results also indicate that the dental students are not well equipped to treat HIV/AIDS patients though sympathetic. One of the key findings is that >80% of students are in favor of using rapid HIV testing in clinical setup as screening test. Conclusion: Dental students must be made aware of and should understand the importance of treating HIV/AIDS patients. This can be achieved by proper modeling and making the students more sensitized toward PLWHAs as well as introduction of routine HIV testing kits at dental setups.
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Correlation between the skeletal maturation stages of two radiographic methods in Peruvians p. 289
Marcos J Carruitero
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the skeletal maturation stages of a hand–wrist method and a cervical vertebrae method in a Peruvian population. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, analytical, retro-prospective, and cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 584 radiographs were analyzed, 292 lateral and 292 hand–wrist radiographs of 7–18-year-old patients from Lima, Peru. Bone maturation was assessed using Fishman's hand–wrist method and Hassel and Farman's cervical vertebral method. To determine the correlation between both methods, Kendall's tau-b, Kendall's tau-c, gamma, and Spearman's rho coefficients were performed. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: Strong and positive correlations were found among the stages studied by both methods; coefficients of 0.751, 0.746, 0.874, and 0.860 for Kendall's tau-b, Kendall's tau-c, gamma, and Spearman's rho, respectively, were found. At the same order, the coefficients for females were 0.761, 0.751, 0.884, and 0.865, while for males were 0.715, 0.687, 0.850, and 0.817. Conclusion: Strong correlation between the skeletal maturity stages by Fishman's hand–wrist method and Hassel and Farman's cervical vertebrae method in the sample studied was found. The correlation was slightly upper in women than men.
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Pigmented injury in the jugal mucosa p. 293
Amanda Guedes Nogueira Matuda, Camila Porto Deco, Antonio Carlos Victor Canettieri, Renata Amadei Nicolau
The buccal cavity can be affected by lesions with different clinical aspects. The pigmented lesions are distinguished by their various causes and consequently, numerous treatments and prognoses. Exogenous pigmentations, melanocytic nevus, and melanocytic melanoma may present very similar clinical characteristics, which makes diagnosis difficult and compromises treatment. The objective of this study was to report the case of a patient diagnosed with melanoma and surgical indication but who, after careful clinical examination and biopsy, received the final diagnosis of exogenous pigmentation. The ABCDE criterion served as a guide to the distinction between benign and malignant lesions; however, complementary tests are essential to conclusive diagnoses, as in the reported case. Radiographic examination may be useful in the differentiation of pigmentation from metallic material; however, as observed in the present case, the examination is not always conclusive. The biopsy was fundamental to obtain the diagnosis and determine the ideal treatment approach. From the case reported, it was possible to conclude that detailed anamnesis and physical examination were essential to guide clinical management.
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