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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-June 2020
Volume 12 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 187-287

Online since Tuesday, June 2, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

Fear and anxiety-coping strategies during COVID-19 pandemic in lockdown Highly accessed article p. 187
Rushabh Jayeshbhai Dagli
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_133_20  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Triple antibiotic paste––Challenging intracanal medicament: A systematic review Highly accessed article p. 189
Saleem D Makandar, Tahir Y Noorani
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_213_19  
Aim: To evaluate and compare the performance of triple antibiotic paste (TAP) as intracanal medicaments during the root canal treatment. Materials and Methods: Search strategy included the in vivo studies, in vitro studies, and clinical trials from the databases of PubMed Central, Cochrane, EBSCO, and MEDLINE from January 1981 to August 2019. A total of 223 articles were searched, of which 39 articles were relevant to our study. The searched articles were clinical trials, case reports, and original studies that met with inclusion criteria. Of which, 13 articles were used for quantitative synthesis. A systematic review was performed for TAPs, antibacterial efficiency, effect on mechanical properties, discoloration effect, and cytotoxicity on stem cells. Results: In the included studies, the systematic review articles, the evidence of antibacterial efficiency of TAP is significantly more efficient compared to other medicaments techniques. The mechanical properties has been evaluated, there is a mild reduction in the mechanical properties of the dentin. TAP plays a significant role in reducing the chronic periapical infections. It shows minimal discoloration effect and minimal cytotoxicity to dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) as compared to calcium hydroxide and Ledermix. Conclusion: This systematic review of available data and evidences reveals that TAP is significantly more efficient than the other intracanal medicaments because of its minimal discoloration effect on teeth and less toxic nature to the DPSCs.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH Top

Effectiveness of the increase of the occlusal vertical dimension in the smile of young Peruvian adults: A quasi-experimental study p. 197
Daniel Alvítez-Temoche, Iván Calderón, Gerardo Ayala, Romel Watanabe, Percy Romero-Tapia, Frank Mayta-Tovalino
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_271_19  
Aim: To evaluate the increase of the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) on the smile in young Peruvian adults. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study included a total of 30 subjects (15 men and 15 women) aged between 20 and 30 years. Silicone stops were created that increased the OVD by 2 and 4 mm. Photographs were taken with a reflex camera of position, at programmed and standardized lighting, with and without the stops made to the patients using a head and face positioner. The following measurements were made: smile index, interlabial distance, intercomisural width, distance of the incisal edge–upper lip, and distance of the incisal edge–lower lip. The analysis of variance test was used for statistical analysis, establishing a level of significance at P < 0.05. Results: The measure of the interlabial distance of the initial smile was 10.70 ± 2.80 mm, in which the OVD became 11.79 ± 3.67 mm with the increase of 2 mm and 12.91 ± 3.98 mm with the increase of 4 mm; however, the increase in OVD favored a decrease on the smile index, decreasing from 6.07 ± 1.51 mm to 5.48 ± 1.24 mm and 4.99 ± 1.47 mm in the group of increases in the OVD of 2 and 4 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The increase of the OVD favors an increase in the interlabial distance and the measure from the incisal edge to the lower lip; however, it produces a decrease in the smile index in the young Peruvian patients evaluated.
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Clinical evaluation of glass ionomer with glass hybrid technology versus conventional high viscosity glass ionomer in class I cavities in patients with high caries risk: Randomized controlled trial Highly accessed article p. 203
Mohamed Refaat El-Bialy, Omar Osama Shaalan, Ahmad Abdelfatah El-Zohairy, Amira Farid El-Zoghby
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_297_19  
Aim: Glass ionomer is a well-known name in caries management and control. Meanwhile, the dark side in its history is being limited as an interim restoration inside patient mouth. The recently introduced glass ionomer with glass hybrid technology could be a new breakthrough in its future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of glass hybrid glass ionomer compared to conventional high-viscosity glass ionomer in class I cavities in patients with high caries risk. Materials and Methods: In a split-mouth design, 31 high caries risk patients with class I cavities received randomly two pairs of restorations, either EQUIA Forte (glass ionomer with glass hybrid technology) or EQUIA Fil (conventional high-viscosity glass ionomer); both materials were applied according to manufacturer’s instructions. Restorations were evaluated at baseline (1 week) and after 1 year by two blinded assessors using Federation Dentaire Internationale criteria for assessment of dental restoration measuring (functional properties and biological properties). Results: Chi-square test was used to compare the difference between glass-ionomer restorative materials at the base line and after 1 year. A value of P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between both materials for all tested outcomes with 100% success rate (score 1 or 2). Conclusion: Glass hybrid glass-ionomer restoration has shown clinical performance similar to conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer restoration in class I cavities in patients with high caries risk after 1 year of clinical service.
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Knowledge and practice of antibiotic prescription by dentists for management of oral diseases in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study p. 213
Sukinah Sameer Alzouri, Essra Aldawood, Batool Hassan Aljuzair, Mohammed Alsaeed, M Nazargi Mahabob
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_130_19  
Aim: Dentists routinely prescribe antibiotics to treat oral and maxillofacial infections prophylactically for those patients with immunocompromised conditions or as an adjunctive with the definitive treatment. Inappropriate prescription or excessive use can lead to bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of dentists on antibiotics prescriptions, and to determine whether the dentists follow the rational of antibiotics use. Materials and Methods: A self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire regarding dentists’ knowledge and practice about antibiotics prescriptions was distributed among government and private dental clinics in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 22.0, and P value was fixed at ≤0.05. Results: The response rate was 57.29% and 33.3% of dentists’ knowledge of antibiotics and their prescriptions were obtained through university. All dentists agreed that it is important to be updated. Results show that there was no significant difference between the mean total scores of knowledge with most of demographic variables (P > 0.05), whereas significant difference was found regarding specialty and years of practice (P < 0.05). Finally, there was significant difference between the nationality and type of practice regarding the mean total score of practice (P < 0.05). Conclusion: From all participants, 50% of dentists have acceptable knowledge regarding antibiotics prescription in all aspects, whereas less than 30% were able to show acceptable level of clinical practice regarding antibiotics prescription. Regular update to dentists’ knowledge accumulated by continuous education courses and formulation of national guidelines need to be followed as a standard for the dentists.
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Oral health handling behavior counseling to improve dental health knowledge of parents in choosing a proper toothache medicine for children: A cross-sectional study p. 221
Gilang Rasuna Sabdho Wening, Delaneira Alvita, Aulia Ramadhani, Fidelia Kartikasari, Muhammad Faisal
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_214_18  
Aim: The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge of elementary school students’s parents about the proper way of choosing medicine for toothache. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study with quasi-experimental method was conducted on 12 respondents who were parents of Grade 2 students of elementary school in Surabaya, and the inclusion criteria of the study were those who experienced toothache in the last 6 months and those who were using painkillers. Respondents were given a pretest to measure the level of knowledge and systematic selection of drugs for their children, and an interview was conducted for the respondents. Moreover, counseling was carried out with the material that had been prepared, and a posttest was carried out to measure the level of knowledge. The data obtained were then analyzed using the paired t-test and linear regression test (degrees of freedom = 11, confidence interval = 95%, and P < 0.05) by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 22.0. Results: There was a significant correlation between the pretest and posttest score (P = 0.00), and this significant correlation affected by respondent’s level of knowledge (P = 0.017). Conclusion: This counseling program was able to increase the knowledge of parents about the risk of using painkillers in children’s toothache.
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Awareness and knowledge of head and neck cancer risks: Do Saudi adults know enough? p. 226
Sahar Bukhary, Rayan Alreheli, Maysoon H Albahiti, Raghad A Al-Dabbagh, Nadia Al-Hazmi, Turki Alhazzazi
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_174_19  
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding head and neck cancer (HNC) in a random sample of Saudi adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of patients was carried out in tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia. A pretested questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 280 patients in several government hospitals in Jeddah. The questionnaire assessed knowledge and perception about oral cancer as well as habits known to be risk factors. Descriptive Statistical analysis was used for this study, and association between demographic and knowledge variables was analyzed by chi-squared test and multivariable logistic regression. Results: Although about half of respondents had heard of HNC, 37.7% felt that they had insufficient knowledge about HNC and 55.0% felt that they knew nothing about it. Men were more likely to have heard of HNC than women (P = 0.046), whereas being better educated (university level or above) was associated with a higher level of knowledge about HNC (P = 0.004), although these variables were not significant in multivariable analysis. Knowledge about the signs of HNC was low. 69.5% were aware that tobacco use is a risk factor, but only 39.8% thought alcohol was also a risk factor. Only 11.5% reported having had a medical examination for HNC. Conclusion: The Saudi Arabian people are poorly informed about HNC. Lack of public awareness is considered a potent barrier for the early detection of HNC. In a country where tobacco use is common, HNC poses a serious health concern and targeted public health strategies are warranted.
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Carbohydrate intake and dental caries status in preschool children in Bantul District, Yogyakarta, Indonesia: A cross-sectional study p. 231
Leny P Arie Sandy, Prayudha B Setiawan
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_67_19  
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of carbohydrate intake habits for the incidence of dental caries in preschool children at the Aisyiyah Bustanul Athfal Kindergarten in Bantul District, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: This presented analytic study comprised 74 children and their mothers. Samples were obtained by purposive sampling in preschool students aged 3–6 years. Dental caries assessed using the Decay, Missing, Filling Teeth (DMF-T) index and the food diet assessed using a diet recall questionnaire with data analysis using the NutriSurvey 2007 software. Data were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software using a chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: The result of this study showed a relationship between carbohydrate consumption and dental caries status, P = 0.01 (P ≤ 0.05). The results showed high rates of caries of children teeth 96%, of 74 students found 71 students had caries and had a history of consuming carbohydrate intake > 10% in 1 day 89% (65 student). Conclusion: Carbohydrate intake caused risk in dental caries in preschool children (P = 0.01). The majority of subjects (92%) were found to have experienced dental caries and had a habit of consuming carbohydrates >10% of total energy in 1 day. The subjects (67%) who were found to be caries free had a habit of consuming carbohydrates <10% of total energy in 1 day.
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Factors associated with the dental health status of health promotion students in the Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia: A cross-sectional study p. 236
Anggia R Renjana, Hadi Pratomo, Ririn Arminsih
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_309_18  
Aim: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the dental health status of public health promotion graduate students. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 67 graduate public health promotion students. A self-administered questionnaire on dental health knowledge, attitudes, and practices was administered, in addition to a dental caries examination. The data were collected during 5 days (from June 5 to 9, 2017). Statistical Test Used: Statistical analysis was performed using both chi square and multiple logistic regression tests with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The Decayed, Missing, and Filled Tooth (DMF-T) index of the students was higher (4.7) than that of the national DMF-T index in 2013. Most of the students (86.6%) had a low level of knowledge of dental health. About half had negative attitudes toward dental health care, as well as a high number of caries. About three of every four students had inadequate dental health care practices. Although the students knew about a free dental clinic at the university, only one-eighth of the study group used this clinic. The respondents who had an inhibiting social environment were 41.8%, whereas 23.9% of them had a supporting social environment. There was a significant correlation between an inhibiting social environment and dental health status (P = 0.036; odds ratio [OR] = 0.347; 95% CI = 0.1–0.9). A multivariate test showed that the students with a supporting social environment had an OR of 2.949. Thus, students without a supporting social environment had a 2.95 higher probability of having a high number of dental caries. Conclusions: Factors associated with the dental health status of public health promotion graduate were identified.
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A comparative study of oral health attitude and behavior of dental and public health students in Ardabil, Iran using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory p. 241
Safa Valizadeh Haghi, Haleh Valizadeh Haghi, Abolfazl Bagheri, Nazanin Karimzadeh
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_289_18  
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the self-reported oral health attitude and behavior of undergraduate dental and public health students, in Ardabil city, Iran to analyze the differences based on the field of education, gender, and level of education. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed on 195 (119 dental and 76 public health) students using Hiroshima University Dental-Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI). Demographic questions including gender, educational field, and level of education were added to the questionnaire. The frequency of responses to the questions in the questionnaire was separately analyzed, tabulated, and reported. The effect of educational field and gender and level of education of students on their oral health attitude and behavior was analyzed using the chi-square test and Pearson correlation coefficient. The value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There were some differences in oral health behavior between dental and public health students. Public health students showed more frequent use of hard toothbrush (P = 0.05) and hard strokes (P = 0.02). Overall, there were no statistically significant differences between female and male students (P > 0.05). No change in attitude occurred by an increase in the level of education (P > 0.05). Conclusion: There were some differences in dental health attitude and behavior of dental and public health students.
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The correlation between Class I, II, III dental and skeletal malocclusion in ethnic Javanese: A cross sectional study p. 248
I Gusti Aju Wahju Ardani, Danitya W Heswari, Alida Alida
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_193_19  
Aim: This study aimed to analyze the correlations between skeletal and dental Class I, II, III malocclusion and the association between molar relation and skeletal classes among Javanese people at Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: An observational analysis study with cross-sectional and total sampling method was conducted. A minimum sample size is determined by Lameshow’s formula. Samples (n = 132) were collected from Airlangga University Dental Hospital. Study models were taken and assessed for the overjet and overbite values and molar relationship according to Angle classification. The lateral cephalography was analyzed to obtain Sella–Nasion–A point (SNA), Sella–Nasion–B point (SNB), A point–Nasion–B point (ANB), Wits, upper incisor–Nasion–A point (U1-NA), and lower incisor–Nasion–B point (L1-NB). The descriptive statistics were performed for calculating the mean and standard deviation. Pearson’s correlation test and Spearman’s rho test were applied to determine the possible correlation between skeletal and dental measurements (P < 0.05). Results: There was an increase of U1-NA and L1-NB in all three classes. On the contrary, there was a decrease of SNB in Class II malocclusion. Class III malocclusion showed an increase of SNB and a decrease of SNA. There is a correlation between skeletal and dental measurements in all three classes. The association between molar relations and skeletal classes in this experiment is intermediate. Conclusion: There was a correlation between skeletal and dental conditions that can exacerbate malocclusion in ethnic Javanese.
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Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of caries removal using various minimally invasive techniques with conventional rotary instruments using cone beam computed tomography: An in vitro study p. 253
Anchu R Thomas, Sumanth K Nagraj, Rekha Mani, Ramaswamy Haribabu
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_256_19  
Aim: The aim of this in vitro investigation was to assess the most efficient minimally invasive technique (MIT) by comparing the change in volume after caries removal using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the time taken for each technique. Materials and Methods: Forty human extracted molars, stored in 0.1% thymol solution, with carious lesions extending into the dentin were used in the study. The caries status of dentin was judged initially by visual inspection and probing and confirmed by caries detector dye. A pre-scan CBCT was performed before assessing the volume of the carious lesion. Teeth were assigned into four groups (n = 10): Group 1 = Carisolv gel, Group 2 = Carie Care, Group 3 = ultrasonic tips, and Group 4 = slow-speed rotary instruments. The caries removal was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Time taken was recorded for each method. A postoperative scan was conducted, and volumetric analysis was carried out. The amount of removal of sound tooth structure was assessed to determine the most MIT. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The intergroup volume change of caries was carried out using the Kruskal–Wallis test, whereas comparison within the group was carried out using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The assessment of time taken during each procedure was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey honest significant difference test. The results were tabulated accordingly. Significance was set at P value ≤ 0.05. Results: The chemomechanical agents (Carisolv and Carie Care) showed minimal change in volume when compared to conventional diamond points. The time taken with conventional diamond point was minimum, and it was maximum for ultrasonic tips. Conclusion: Chemomechanical caries removal is the most minimalistic approach when compared to the other techniques.
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Effectiveness of red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam.) on Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) in the field of prosthodontics: An experimental study p. 260
Vita MP Novianti, Lisda Damayanti, Aprillia Adenan, Yuti Malinda
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_225_19  
Aim: This research aimed at investigating the effectiveness of antifungal obtained from red fruit in the treatment of C. albicans. Materials and Methods: The disk diffusion method was used to examine the inhibition zone from red fruit in methanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water fractions with concentration of 25%, 50%, and 75%, and also chlorhexidine (2%) as control. The fraction that has a greatest antifungal effect toward C. albicans was further tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with microdilution method and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) with potato dextrose agar media culture. Data analysis was carried out descriptively on inhibition zone test and MFC, whereas the experimental, analytical study was performed on MIC with Saphiro–Wilk test followed by one-sample t test. Results: The findings showed that the ethyl acetate fraction had the best antifungal effectivity against C. albicans as compared with methanol, n-hexane, and water fractions at all concentrations, although it was slightly less than the chlorhexidine control 2%. MIC of ethyl acetate fraction was 15.63mg/mL, whereas its MFC was 31.25mg/mL. MIC analysis with one-sample t test showed that ethyl acetate fraction of red fruit had a significant effect on C. albicans (P = 0.0053). Conclusion: This research showed that the ethyl acetate fraction from red fruit can be used as an antifungal agent for C. albicans.
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Recombinant protein galectin-1 exposure to OM-1 cell proliferation: An experimental in vitro study p. 270
Andra Rizqiawan, Indra Mulyawan, Aries Muharram, Ni Putu Mira Sumarta, David B Kamadjaja, Coen P Danudiningrat
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_188_19  
Aim: The aim of this study was to overcome the shortage of galectin-1 (Gal-1) protein and to determine cell proliferation by adding recombinant protein that has a high protein content of the squamous cell OM-1. Materials and Methods: A presented study was Experimental laboratory study. The role of recombinant protein galectin‑1 (r‑Gal‑1) in combating squamous cell carcinoma of the OM‑1, as compared to HOC313 squamous cell carcinoma without exposure to r‑Gal‑1, through the promotion of cell proliferation. An in vitro experiment was conducted on the following three groups: a negative control group using OM-1 cells, an intervention group comprising OM-1 cells to which 8 µg/mL r-Gal-1 was added, and a positive control incorporating HOC313 cells that were highly invasive. The proliferation level of the cells was measured by means of the optical density on a microplate reader on days 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. In the three test groups, an increased proliferation rate was obtained on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 on OM-1, OM-1 + r-Gal-1, and HOC313. The statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance test, Kruskal–Wallis test, least significant difference test, and Mann–Whitney test. Results: The proliferation rate increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment group (OM-1 + r-Gal-1) as compared to the negative control group (OM-1). The positive control group (HOC313) experienced the highest degree of proliferation among the three groups. Conclusion: Gal-1 is a protein that plays a key role in the processes of cancer metastasis and invasion.
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Blood group analysis from cigarette butts by absorption inhibition method: An experimental study p. 275
Mieke Sylvia Margaretha Amiatun Ruth, Melly Purnadianti, Maria Istiqomah Marini
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_219_19  
Aim: In red blood cells (RBCs), antigens such as A, B, D, and H, are found to be present. The antigens are secreted in various body secretions such as semen, sweat, amniotic fluid, saliva and also blood. At the crime scene, saliva samples are very valuable, which can be collected from dry or wet cigarette butts. Blood group antigens in saliva can be found by absorption inhibition method. This study aimed to investigate blood group antigens on the cigarette butts based on time. Materials and Methods: Eighteen cigarette butt samples, used in accordance with the inclusion criteria, were placed at room temperature for 1, 3, and 6h. The estimation of blood group antigens on the cigarette butts was carried out by absorption inhibition method. Results: All samples indicated the presence of antigens in the ABO blood group. Blood group antigens in saliva on cigarette butts, after incubation from 1h until 6h, could be examined by absorption inhibition method (100%). Conclusion: Cigarette butt samples that contain saliva can be used for forensic investigations in narrowing down the suspect pool by blood group determination.
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The outcomes of nonsurgical periodontal therapy: A retrospective study p. 280
Juzaily Husain, Munirah Yaacob, Farah Natasha Mohd, Balqis Hazirah Badrul Hisham, Liyana Mohd Saleh
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_288_19  
Aim: In this study, patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) were evaluated to determine the clinical outcomes following nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of clinical outcomes following nonsurgical periodontal therapy was provided by International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) dental undergraduates. This secondary data analysis of 110 patients with chronic periodontitis were reviewed and clinical data abstracted. Data were analyzed to observe the treatment outcomes of all patients and then were grouped into “responders” or “nonresponders” to assess the correlation between clinical prognostic indicators and the treatment outcome. Results: Significant improvements with all clinical parameters such as plaque score, bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing depth (PPD) >4 mm and >6 mm, and clinical attachment loss were noted on all patients. Deep sites (PPD >4 mm) were significantly higher in smokers and it continued to be in large proportions during the posttreatment period. A great number of smokers and all diabetic patients fall into the nonresponder group. However, this study fails to statistically prove better outcomes in terms of all clinical parameters on the responder group as compared to the nonresponder group as all P values > 0.05. Conclusion: The CP treatments were positively associated with the benefits of nonsurgical therapy by IIUM undergraduates. It is displayed by the improvement in all clinical parameters. In addition, poorer outcomes were portrayed by smokers as reduction of BOP and PPD was not significantly achieved compared to their counterparts. However, patient-specific outcomes were not positively reported due to lack of data.
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