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  Most popular articles (Since November 15, 2016)

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Prophylactic antibiotics after extraction: Needed or not needed?
M Deepa, Deepthi Mony, Tusha Ratra
November-December 2017, 9(6):265-268
Aim: Our study aimed to evaluate the need to prescribe antibiotics before every extraction even in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized clinical trial was done on 483 patients who were indicated for undergoing extraction under local anesthesia. The patients were evaluated for signs of infection that included pain, edema, fever, pus discharge, erythema, and decreased interincisal opening. They were evaluated on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th postoperative day for the same. The patient was considered to have an active infection if they showed pain and any other two signs of infections. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study. Results: Out of the 483 patients evaluated two patients had pain and showed slight edema and erythema. These patients were considered as having an active infection and were prescribed therapeutic antibiotics. Conclusion: In our study, 0.4% showed signs of active infection after undergoing extraction without prophylactic antibiotics. Further studies have to be undertaken to create definitive guidelines for prescribing antibiotics after extraction.
  7,554 221 -
The key to the management of pier abutment: An alternative approach
Ansu Kuruvila, Suja Joseph, Namratha L Jayalekshmi, Sujith K Menon
May-June 2017, 9(3):136-139
Pier abutment poses a challenge to prosthodontist. Rigid connectors are less than ideal treatment in case of these abutments. Nonrigid connectors have been recommended to reduce the forces as they provide a stress-breaking effect. This case report presents an alternative approach to the management of pier abutment. A 46-year-old female patient with missing teeth involving a pier abutment was rehabilitated with a fixed dental prosthesis with key-keyway connectors. An alternative method of orientation of the connector was used to benefit the patient.
  7,098 582 -
Early orthodontic interception of anterior crossbite in mixed dentition
MM Sunil, MA Zareena, MS Ratheesh, G Anjana
March-April 2017, 9(2):88-90
Single tooth anterior crossbite is commonly seen in the early mixed dentition period. Once identified, the treatment should ideally involve any method which is simple, noninvasive, involves little chair side time, requires minimal patient cooperation, and gives rapid correction of the crossbite without affecting the surrounding structures. In young children, compliance with a removable appliance can often be an issue. Here, we present a fixed appliance for the correction of single tooth anterior crossbite in mixed dentition using a simple appliance.
  4,932 629 1
Review of microleakage evaluation tools
AlHanouf Abdullah AlHabdan
July-August 2017, 9(4):141-145
The advancement of restorative materials and techniques continues to enhance the clinical success of numerous restorative procedures. Despite these new innovations, microleakage persists as one of the main causes of restoration failure. Microleakage tests provide useful information on the performance of restorative materials, and different techniques for assessing microleakage have been developed and used. These tests include the use of dyes, radioactive isotopes, air pressure, bacteria, neutron activation analysis, and artificial caries. However, little has been done to determine the cause, mechanism, and nature of microleakage. Therefore, this review outlines and discusses the currently available microleakage assessment tools.
  4,734 764 -
GERT index: A modified tooth mobility and treatment index
Lakshmi Puzhankara
January-February 2018, 10(1):4-9
Aim: Tooth mobility has always been a monumental factor in determining the prognosis of a tooth. There are no indices that link the etiology, grade of mobility, and radiographic appearance with treatment options for mobile teeth. This particular article aims to overcome the oversight and bring in a scoring system that incorporates all the above mentioned components. Materials and Methods: Previously existing index for tooth mobility has been modified (G Score) to make it more defined numerically and clinically, and it has been combined with indices for etiology (E Score) of tooth mobility and radiographic appearance (R Score) of mobile teeth. The Grading Etiology Radiographic appearance (GER) scores have then been allied with a combination of treatment methods (T Score) to get the Grading Etiology Radiographic appearance Treatment (GERT) index. Results: The index that results from this combination is one that encompasses the factors that determine the prognosis and treatment aspects of a mobile tooth. The index given in this article takes into consideration the components that contribute to the diagnosis of the etiology of tooth mobility such the clinical presentation and the radiographic appearance. The grade of mobility has been modified to allow for precise numerical assessment of mobility. Thus, the treatment plan proposed considers the basic cause for the mobility and the comprehensive treatment modality for the same. Conclusion: Although the index appears elaborate, once mastered, it would pave the way for a thorough treatment planning for mobile teeth and efficient execution of the treatment plan.
  4,569 364 -
Management of discolored endodontically treated tooth using sodium perborate
Thamer Almohareb
May-June 2017, 9(3):133-135
The aim of this report is to depict the successful management of a discolored central incisor subsequent to endodontic treatment and its follow-up for 1 year. Improper bleaching techniques can lead to cervical resorption and eventual loss of teeth. Management of the discolored endodontically treated tooth can be performed using sodium perborate (SP). A 22-year-old female who had undergone endodontic treatment of the central incisor reported with discolored maxillary central incisor tooth. The case was managed with “walking bleach technique” using SP and water. The case was followed up for 1 year and there was no relapse. Proper selection of bleaching agent and technique had resulted in the conservative and successful management of the case. Appropriate bleaching technique should be selected to manage discolored teeth.
  3,976 323 -
Knowledge and practice of rotary instrumentation in primary teeth among indian dentists: A questionnaire survey
Lavanya Govindaraju, Ganesh Jeevanandan, EMG Subramanian
March-April 2017, 9(2):45-48
Introduction: Use of rotary instrumentation for pulpectomy is a recent emerging concept in the field of pedodontics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practice of NiTi rotary instruments' usage in primary teeth by the Indian dentists. Materials and Methods: A self-administrated questionnaire was prepared and pretested and was given to the private practitioners. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were obtained. The data were entered and analyzed for frequency and percentages using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 17. Results: In the present study, about 50% of the practitioners used rotary instrumentation of root canals in primary teeth, of which majority were postgraduates. ProTaper was the commonly used rotary system in primary teeth. The practitioners felt both taper and length of the existing rotary file to be the limitation for its use in primary teeth. Conclusion: From the present study, it is concluded that there is a need for comprehensive education programs to be conducted to increase the awareness and use of rotary files for pulpectomy in primary teeth. In addition, there is a need for an exclusive pediatric rotary system for convenience in using it in children.
  3,291 453 2
Carbon monoxide breath analyzers and its role in tobacco cessation: A narrative review of literature
Ramprasad Vasthare, Santhosh Kumar, Lim Yan Ran Arron
March-April 2018, 10(2):71-76
This literature review was done to estimate the uses and effectiveness of carbon monoxide (CO) breath analyzers in identifying smokers and evaluating the role it can play in tobacco cessation programs. A web-based research on PubMed and Scopus from date of inception till 2016 was done for collecting data for the review. Our inquiry was limited to relevant articles with specific keywords. During the web search title and abstracts, 118 articles were screened for content and quality and 66 articles were selected to get an update on the desired information. As on date, there is enough evidence to prove the reasonably high sensitivity and specificity of CO analyzers in distinguishing smokers and nonsmokers. It also correlates well with smoking status. Its primary application is in validating smoking abstinence and as a motivational tool in smoking cessation programs. Due to its advantages over other biochemical assays, it is used in screening large population, in developing countries and in research. It can also detect pregnant women who are smokers and victims of passive tobacco exposure. However, it does possess limitations which have to be taken into account when using it. It can be concluded that CO analyzers are proven to have great potential and can be used as an adjunct in achieving the goal of combating tobacco addiction. It is cheap, noninvasive, gives immediate results, easy to use, and it can be self-administered by individuals. It should henceforth be considered as an invaluable tool for tobacco cessation programs.
  3,476 218 2
Comparative evaluation of effect of smoking on survival of dental implant
Arpana Arora, Madhan Mohan Reddy, Swapnil Mhatre, Aashima Bajaj, PV Gopinath, Prasad Arvind
January 2017, 9(1):24-27
Aims and Objectives: Osseointegrated implants are used in replacement of missing teeth. Survival rate of implant depends on many factors including oral hygiene, implant material used, bone quality, and personal oral habit such as smoking. The present retrospective research was conducted to assess the effect of smoking on survival of dental implant. Materials and Methods: The study participants were selected from all the patients who underwent for dental implant in implant center from 2005 to 2015. For each patient, various information regarding implant characteristics and smoking habits were recorded. The readings were statistically evaluated by SPSS statistical software by IBM version 21 and using Chi-square test at P ≤ 0.01. Results: In our study, the age range of patients was between 30 and 54 years. There were 2142 (57.2%) male and 1579 (42.4%) female participants, in that 72.2% were nonsmokers and 27.7% were smokers. Implant placed more in mandible (2312, 62%) than in maxillary region (1409, 37.8%). From 3721 patients, 3600 were successful and 121 failures. Success of implant was considerably more in nonsmokers than smokers. Implant failure rate was more in smokers with increased frequency and duration of cigarette smoking habit, but it was statistically not significant. In the present study, we have observed 0.049% mobility in smokers compared to 0.007% in nonsmokers. Conclusion: The present study showed that higher risk of implant failure was associated with long term and increased frequency of smoking due to bone resorption.
  3,303 202 2
Effects of green tea on periodontal health: A prospective clinical study
Swati Sharma, Lipsa Bhuyan, Sujatha Ramachandra, Smriti Sharma, Kailash Chandra Dash, Kanika Singh Dhull
March-April 2017, 9(2):39-44
Background: An increasing number of people all around the world are turning to the nature by using the natural herbal products in both prophylaxis and treatment of different diseases. Green tea with active chemical ingredients possesses diverse pharmacological properties that include anti-inflammatory, anticariogenic, antioxidant, and antibacterial effects. The aim of this study is to assess the protective properties of green tea on periodontal health and also to know whether any side effect of green tea prevails in terms of staining of teeth. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized clinical intervention study. Three dependent variables: probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured to reflect periodontal diseases. Results: The three dependent variables, namely, PD, CAL, and BOP showed statistically significant reductions following introduction of green tea as a conjunct oral hygiene measure in study group as compared to control group. Conclusion: Green tea has shown the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticollagenase activities on periodontal health.
  3,015 276 -
Management of infraorbital rim and orbital floor fractures: A comparison of subciliary and infraorbital approaches
Mohammed Ahtesam Aleem, Fazil Arshad Nasyam, KR Parameshwar Reddy, Tanveer Karpe, Tejpal Singh, Achunala Bhavani Shailaja
March-April 2017, 9(2):65-70
Background: Selection of approach to treat orbital fractures involves multiple factors such as visibility and esthetics. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare subciliary and infraorbital incisions for orbital floor and infraorbital rim fractures. Materials and Methods: We carried our study in twenty patients, who reported to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery with orbital floor and infraorbital rim fractures. The patients were divided into two groups (Group A - subciliary incision and Group B - infraorbital incision), with ten patients in each group. We compared infraorbital and subciliary incisions to approach the infraorbital rim and orbital floor in orbital fractures using criteria such as exposure time, esthetics, and complications. Results: All the analysis was done using SPSS version 14.P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. We found that infraorbital incision took shortest time for exposing fractured site, caused more edema after 1 month of procedure, and lead to more visible scarring when compared to subciliary incision. Conclusion: We recommend subciliary incision to approach the infraorbital rim and orbital floor fractures.
  3,114 160 1
Assessment of pain, swelling and trismus following impacted third molar surgery using injection dexamethasone submucosally: A prospective, randomized, crossover clinical study
Kamran Bokhari Syed, Falah Hassan Khuzayyim AlQahtani, Abdul Hakeem Ayed Mohammad, Ismail Mohammad Abdullah, Hussain Saad Hussain Qahtani, Mohammad Shahul Hameed
May-June 2017, 9(3):116-121
Background: Corticosteroids are known to reduce inflammation, fluid transudation, and edema. Secreted from the adrenal glands, these compounds have a significant role in maintaining metabolism. One of the essential roles played by steroids is their anti-inflammatory role. Aims and Objectives: This prospective, randomized, crossover, clinical study was conducted with the following aims and objectives: (a) to assess pain, swelling and trismus in patients undergoing surgical removal of impacted third molars, (b) to compare the pain, swelling and mouth opening with injection of submucosal dexamethasone 4 mg administered preoperatively, and (c) to compare the results with similar studies conducted elsewhere. Materials and Methods: The study sample involves 20 patients (40 impacted teeth-split arch) with the following inclusion criteria: Patient's reporting for surgical removal of symptomatic impacted mandibular third molars aged between 18 and 45, impacted mandibular third molar with similar anatomical position, and similar surgical difficulty (Pell-Gregory classification was followed), no allergies to medicines prescribed in the postoperative period, patients who are nonsmokers, nonalcoholics and without any systemic diseases, and not systemically compromised or not under long-term steroid therapy. Syndromic patients, patients with periapical pathologies were excluded from the study. Results: The results of the present study suggest that there is a significant reduction of pain, swelling and improvement in mouth opening following submucosal injection of dexamethasone at the end of the 1st postoperative day and the results are statistically significant. Conclusion: (a) Corticosteroids decrease pain, edema and swelling by exerting their anti-inflammatory role, (b) there is statistically significant difference in reduction of pain, swelling and improvement of mouth opening at the end of 1st postoperative day, (c) submucosal injection of dexamethasone is less traumatic, less painful and is effective in limiting postoperative discomfort to the patient, and (d) a similar prospective study is suggested comparing the efficacy of intravenous dexamethasone versus submucosal administration of dexamethasone.
  2,593 303 -
Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction in edentulous patients of Saudi Arabia
Bader K AlZarea
January 2017, 9(1):1-5
Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of various temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) signs in healthy asymptomatic edentulous individuals and denture wearers. Materials and Methods: Four hundred completely edentulous individuals in the age group of 45–75 years, who did not complain of any TMD and were denture bearers with varied denture-wearing span, were examined for the existence of TMD signs and symptoms. Statistical analyses were carried out with Chi-square test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The total prevalence of TMD in the group was 60.5% (58.75% in males and 63.12% in females). It has been observed that more number of females (63.21%) reported signs of TMD and majority of them (23.25%) reported with two signs of TMD. The most common finding was limitation on mouth opening and the least common finding was joint sounds (crepitus and clicking). The occurrence of findings was not statistically related to edentulous span. Conclusion: The present study showed a high prevalence of signs of TMD in healthy asymptomatic completely edentulous individuals. However, the gender difference was not statistically significant.
  2,606 249 -
Knowledge, attitude, perception toward radiation hazards and protection among dental undergraduate students: A study
Rahul Srivastava, Bhuvan Jyoti, Prakash Jha, Ashutosh Shukla
March-April 2017, 9(2):81-87
Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and perception (KAP) of dental students toward ionizing radiation, biological hazards, and appropriate radiographic protection methods. To assess the need for improving the knowledge/awareness toward radiation hazards and protection methods among the dental students and interns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted. A total of 174 dental students who had completed their 30 days posting in Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were inducted for the study. All the students were subjected to structured 17 response questionnaire with multiple choices. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS software package version 17. Pearson Chi-square test was done to evaluate the statistical significance. Results: The present study revealed 54.22% correct response from 3rd year followed by 57.78% from final years and 61.64% from interns. The overall correct response was 57.57%. Conclusion: The results from the present study revealed that the KAP level in regard to the biological hazardous effects of X-ray and protection was low to average among dental students. It is recommended that the syllabus of dental radiology should be expanded to provide clinical knowledge regarding radiation hazards and protection, so that students are well grounded with the principles of dental radiography.
  2,597 251 -
Various recent reinforcement phase incorporations and modifications in glass ionomer powder compositions: A comprehensive review
Arbaz Sajjad, Wan Zaripah Wan Bakar, Dasmawati Mohamad, TP Kannan
July-August 2018, 10(4):161-167
Glass ionomer cements (GIC) were first introduced to dentistry in the late 1960s and since have proven to be useful in various areas of dental science, particularly restorative dentistry. As an aqueous polyelectrolyte system, GICs are known for their relative ease of use, chemical bond to the tooth, fluoride release and recharge, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and acceptable esthetic quality. However, clinical usage of GICs is still limited due to their relatively inferior mechanical properties and sensitivity to initial desiccation and moisture. Years of extensive research on enhancing the chemistry of the basic glasses have yielded improved formulations with enhanced mechanical properties and reduced moisture sensitivity. A comprehensive review of the available literature has revealed that not all modifications in glass powder have resulted in the desirable strengthening of GICs. There is a shift of focus toward studies on nanoscale particles and bioactive glass. Recent research has proven that incorporation of nanoceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA), fluorapatite, silica, and zirconia (ZrO2) have resulted in improved mechanical properties of GICs due to their ability to release fluoride, high surface area, and better particle size distribution. More work should thus, be undertaken to optimize techniques for enhancing the physicomechanical properties of GICs by incorporation of nanophases of ZrO2, HA, and metallic nanofillers.
  2,364 360 1
Clinical correction of class III facial profile in a 15-year-old girl having anterior open bite and lower incisor twinning using reverse pull headgear and fixed orthodontic treatment
Mathew Tharakan, LK Surej Kumar, G Harikrishnan, Shajil C Enara
March-April 2017, 9(2):91-96
Use of reverse pull headgear (RPHG) is well advocated and is widely used all over for the early correction of developing Class III malocclusions, mainly in early and late mixed dentition period. Seldom are any articles found, on the use of RPHG in postpubertal girls with Class III facial profiles and anterior open bite. Twinning of teeth usually results from abnormalities in the development of the tooth. Clinically, such a tooth hampers esthetics and the available arch length, which necessitates multidisciplinary intervention. This article reports the successful correction of a 15-year-old girl with Class III profile, anterior open bite and lower incisor twinning.
  2,597 119 -
Epidemiology and incidence of traumatic head injury associated with maxillofacial fractures: A global perspective
Maher M Abosadegh, Shaifulizan A. B. Rahman
March-April 2018, 10(2):63-70
Traumatic head injuries (THIs) associated with maxillofacial fractures (MFFs) are large public health concern worldwide, especially among adult-aged males. The MF injuries accompanied with THI involve serious esthetic and functional problems that lead to various consequential complications; therefore, early detection of associated THI in patients with MFF is the urgent need for initial assessment and treatment planning because it can reduce morbidity and mortality and enhance the outcome of treatment in those patients. The present review provides current updates for THI associated with MFF among different countries considering the prevalence, age, sex, etiology, and types of MFF in patients with THI throughout the world. The young adult males in the age group of 20–39 years were the most sustained THI associated with MFF. Road traffic accident (RTA) was the most common etiology of injury followed by assault, fall, and the other causes represent very low percentages. The types of MFF (orbital, zygoma, maxilla, and mandible) were associated with THI in MFF patients. Within the limits of the reviewed THI associated with MFF literature, it was concluded that civilization, culture, adult age group, male gender, RTA, and assault were the major factors that determine the trends of THI-related MFF. In this study, we recommend improving public awareness by applying road traffic regulations, encouraging the rules for compulsory use of seat belts and helmet, avoiding risky driving, and enhancing road quality.
  2,473 222 1
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization
Kalyana Chakravarthy Pentapati, Sravan Kumar Yeturu, Hanan Siddiq
November-December 2017, 9(6):243-250
Aims: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the pooled prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among children. Methods: Three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL) were searched till January 1, 2017, for the prevalence of MIH among children. The heterogeneity of the publications was evaluated using I2 statistics. Two trained reviewers conducted risk of bias assessment with nine item checklist for prevalence studies. Results: Analysis of the included publications revealed a pooled prevalence of 11.24 (confidence interval = 9.23–13.45) with the use of quality effects model. Heterogeneity among the included publications was high. The risk of bias assessment showed that majority of them were in the low-risk category. Conclusions: MIH is a common problem and one in 10 children could be affected by MIH.
  2,367 312 -
A comparative study of the effect of nanohydroxyapatite and eggshell on erosive lesions of the enamel of permanent teeth following soft drink exposure: A randomized clinical trial
Maede Yaberi, Roza Haghgoo
July-August 2018, 10(4):176-179
Aims: The purpose of this in situ study was to compare the effects of nanohydroxyapatite or eggshell (ES) extract on the microhardness of healthy third molar tooth enamel following soft drink exposure. Materials and Methods: This study was performed as a randomized clinical trial. This experimental study was conducted with ten participants and involved twenty extracted, healthy, permanent third molar teeth. The initial microhardness values of the teeth were measured. The teeth were then exposed to delestre for 10 min, and the microhardness was measured again. Samples were divided into two groups of 10. For each appliance, two teeth were placed, one from each group and one on either side of the appliance. For the in situ study, sections of two teeth, one from each group, were embedded in an appliance and placed in the mouth of the volunteer. Each volunteer used this appliance for 10 days. After 10 days, the microhardness of the teeth was measured again. Finally, data were analyzed using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. Results: The mean tooth enamel microhardness was significantly decreased following exposure to delestre and the mean microhardness of demineralized tooth enamel significantly increased after exposure to both nanohydroxyapatite and eggshell extract. Conclusion: Nanohydroxyapatite and ES have the potential to remineralization erosive lesions.
  2,499 165 -
A comparative evaluation of the internal adaptation of various lining materials to dentin under light cure composite restorations: A scanning electron microscope study
Nishin K John, KV Manoj, Bobby Joseph, Aby Kuruvilla, Noushin Faizal, Binila S Babu
January 2017, 9(1):6-11
Aims and Objectives: To examine adaptation of lining materials to dentin and resin under scanning electron microscope in Class V restorations. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five caries-free extracted maxillary and mandibular molars were selected, and Class V restoration cavities prepared. The cavities were filled with Dycal as liner, resin-modified glass ionomer (Vitrebond [VT]) as base and restored with composite in different combinations. The statistical software SPSS version 11.0 and Systat 8.0 were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Microgaps were seen when Dycal and VT were used as liners and bases under composite resin restorations. Conclusion: Hybridization of dentin significantly reduced microgaps, especially after adhesive was applied.
  2,466 159 -
In vitro analysis and comparison on depth of cure in newer bulk fill composite resin with conventional micro- and nano-hybrid composite resin using two different light sources quartz-tungsten-halogen and light emitting diode with three varying intensities
Kamatchi Subramani Savadamoorthi, Swathi Priyadharshini, Anand Sherwood, Kandasamy Paulraj Jesudoss, Vasanthan Vignesh Kumar, Ananthi Christopher
January 2017, 9(1):12-15
Aims: The current in vitro analysis evaluated the depth of cure in newer bulk fill composite resin which compared the traditionally used hybrid and microfill composite resin which used two different light sources quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light emitting diode (LED) unit with three varying intensities in conventional standard curing mode for 20 s. Materials and Methods: Three composite resins were selected for this study, namely, bulk fill (Smart Dentin Replacement, Dentsply), hybrid (Tetric N – Ceram, Ivoclar), and microfill (Te-Econom Plus, Ivoclar) with four different thickness 2, 4, 6, and 10 cured with varying intensities (625, 850, and 1025 mW/cm2) using two different light sources QTH (QHL 75, Dentsply) and LED (Ledition, Ivoclar and Valo, Ultradent). The depth of cure was determined using a scraping method based on ISO 4049:2000. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Kruskal–Wallis test is applied followed by Bonferroni-corrected Mann–Whitney test. Results: Best depth of cure results were obtained with a bulk fill composite resin cured under 1025 mW/cm2 intensity using LED. Bulk fill showed the highest curing depth results in all varied intensities. Conclusions: Bulk fill composite resin was found to be more successful than hybrid and microfill composite resin with respect to the depth of cure.
  2,124 206 1
Incidence, clinical presentation, and demographic factors associated with oral cancer patients in the southern region of Saudi Arabia: A 10-year retrospective study
Abdulrahman Hesham, Kamran Bokhari Syed, Basem T Jamal, Ali Mosfer Ali Alqahtani, AlHassan Ahmed Ali Alfaqih, Hassan Amer Ali Alshehry, Mohammad Shahul Hameed, Abdel Bagi Mustafa
May-June 2017, 9(3):105-109
Background: This is a retrospective study design to assess the incidence of oral cancer in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. The study involves three tertiary care centers primarily involved in oral cancer care. Incidence, type, distribution of oral cancer among age group, gender, region, and site are assessed. Materials and Methods: A self-designed questionnaire assessed the incidence of oral cancer over 10 years among patients visiting tertiary care centers in Southern Saudi Arabia. A total of 2850 files were screened. Demographic data included gender, age group, and the region from where the patient represented. The clinical presentation of the lesion, site, bilateral involvement, and histopathological variant was included in the study. Data are presented as frequency tables and percentages. Results: A total of 94 patients presented with oral cancer. The incidence of oral cancer in Southern Saudi Arabia is 3.29%; 44 (46.8%) were female and rest 50 were male (53.2%). Patients from 8 regions of Southern Saudi Arabia presented with oral cancer. Of the 8 regions, patients from Abha had the highest incidence of oral cancer (20.2%). Clinical presentation varied from the ulcer (59.3%), swelling (19%), ulcer and swelling (12%), and swelling of the neck along with ulcer in primary site (9.6%) in descending order. 37.2% of the patients presented with a lesion in the tongue making it the highest prone site. 91.5% of the patients were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma followed by 5.3% as verrucous carcinoma and 3.5% as sarcoma. The mean follow was 5.3 years. Conclusion: The incidence of oral cancer in Southern Saudi Arabia is 3.29% over 10 years. This is significantly low when compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. The lower incidence might be attributed to the absence of habits such as betel chewing, pan masala, and gutkha habits normally seen in India and regions around. The presentation of oral cancer is similar to other regions of the world. Surprisingly, females have an almost similar rate of incidence as males though slightly less. This makes it mandatory to assess the habits such as smoking among females more thoroughly. Tongue remains to be the site with the highest incidence which correlates with similar findings in other regions of the world.
  2,076 169 -
Intrusion of an overerupted maxillary molar with orthodontic mini implants for implant restorative purposes
Gilberto Salazar, Adriana F Serrano, Gustavo O Mazzey
January-February 2018, 10(1):44-46
This case report presents the use of orthodontic micro screw implants to intrude an overerupted maxillary first molar as a strategy to obtain adequate interocclusal space for replacing a missing first lower opposing molar. A 37-year-old female who have recently finished her orthodontic treatment and a mandibular first molar missing was treated for the tooth replacement and successful intrusion of the opposing molar using two orthodontic micro screw implants previous to the final restoration. This is a conservative approach to avoid this kind of situations that can complicate the prosthetic treatment.
  1,997 200 -
Factors related to the clinical application of orthodontic mini-implants
Panagiota Ntolou, Aikaterini Tagkli, Eudoxie Pepelassi
May-June 2018, 10(3):103-110
Orthodontic mini-implants use has been increased. The purpose of this review was to analyze the factors related to the clinical application of orthodontic mini-implants. For the present study, the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar were searched for available data. The literature search was performed on the articles published from 2003 up to 2017. International peer-reviewed journal articles related to factors which are associated with the clinical application of orthodontic mini-implants were searched. Successful application of mini-implants depends on proper selection of insertion site, proper selection of mini-implant (length, diameter, tapering), proper insertion (site, predrilling, angle, primary stability, injury, and absence of adjacent anatomic structures), absence of inflammation, and proper orthodontic loading. Insertion site and mini-implant characteristics are selected based mainly on cortical bone thickness, bone density, available bone, adjacent anatomic structures, and soft-tissue thickness. Sites of high cortical bone thickness, high cancellous bone density, sufficient available bone, and thin attached gingiva are ideal for mini-implant insertion. Extremely thick cortical bone requires attention. In thick cortical bone, shorter mini-implants can be selected. For sites of low cortical bone thickness and low cancellous bone density, longer and wider mini-implants are indicated. Very thin cortical bone and very low cancellous bone density negatively affect the prognosis of mini-implants. Very narrow implants entail fracture risk. Predrilling is preferred at high bone quality sites, whereas it is used with caution or even be avoided at low bone quality sites. Angled placement might be considered to increase bone-to-implant contact and reduce root injury risk. Loading time depends on insertion torque. Successful application of mini-implants is based on proper insertion site and mini-implant characteristics selection, proper insertion, absence of inflammation, and proper orthodontic loading. Careful assessment of all the factors that might compromise mini-implant success is important for their clinical application.
  1,881 301 3
Translation of english version of oral health impact profile-14 into Gujarati
Santosh Kumar Goje, Jay Patel, Pulkit Kalyan, Narayan Kulkarni, Romil Shah, Bhumi Modi
January 2017, 9(1):16-19
Introduction: Any quality of life (QoL) assessment tool needs to be validated in the language of the participants to whom it is administered. Several language versions of oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14) already exist, for example, in German, Swedish, Hebrew, Chinese, Hindi, and Scottish. The present study has tried to establish a Gujarati version of OHIP-14. This Gujarati version of OHIP-14 would be useful to assess the impact of oral health on QoL of dental patients, who understand Gujarati. Aim: This study aimed to translate and validate the Gujarati version of OHIP-14. Materials and Methods: The original English version of the OHIP-14 was translated using the World Health Organization method (forward-backward translation technique), and then 109 participants were given English as well as Gujarati versions of OHIP-14 questionnaire. Filled questionnaires were collected from the participants and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: All the 14 questions showed no statistically significant difference between the English version of OHIP-14 and the translated Gujarati version of OHIP-14. Results of unpaired t-test (P = 0.103) were not statistically significant. Pearson's correlation coefficient test was 0.990, suggesting that the translated Gujarati version is highly correlated with the original English version. Conclusions: The translated Gujarati version of OHIP-14 is a precise, valid, and reliable instrument for assessing oral health-related QoL among Gujarati population.
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