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   2016| May  | Volume 8 | Issue 5  
    Online since January 27, 2017

 
 
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Determination of the Anti-inflammatory Property of Tannins from the Rind of Calamansi (Citrus microcarpa, Rutaceae)
Donya Alinejhad, M Ali Asayesh, Maryam Asayesh
May 2016, 8(5):546-553
Background: The research involved the screening of tannins and the determination of the anti-inflammatory activity of tannins from the rind of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa, Rutaceae). The problem dealt mainly with the determination of anti-inflammatory activity of tannins from calamansi rind. Materials and Methods: The investigation started with the collection, drying and grinding of the rind. The rind was macerated in 95% ethyl alcohol. The filtrate was used in the screening and preliminary testing for tannins performed, and the remaining plant sample was macerated with distilled water and was used in the extraction and testing of tannins. The presence of tannins was determined by the following test: Ferric chloride test, gelatin test, bromine water test, lime water test, and lead acetate test. Physical, chemical, and biological test for the anti-inflammatory activity using rats as animal test was done. The biological test was performed through the plant extract by carrageenan-induced edema formation using albino rats. The samples that were administered to the rats were 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. The percent protection should not be <20% of anti-inflammatory activity compared to the positive control that was aspirin 300 mg. Results: Gelatin test showed the formation of precipitate. Ferric chloride test resulted in the formation of brownish green color. The yellow color solution was obtained in lead acetate test. Bromine water test resulted in formation of a light brown precipitation with orange precipitation. Lime water test indicated slight brown precipitation. Organoleptic test for tannins showed a sticky, brownish, semi-solid with coffee - like odor substance. Tannin extracts were insoluble in acetone, chloroform, and ether. Nearly, 95% of alcohol has slight solubility and water was soluble of tannins. Biological testing results of anti-inflammatory activity with the samples that were administered to the rats in 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg showed 51.93%, 52.72%, and 65.70% of anti- inflammatory protection, respectively. Aspirin tablets of 300 mg/kg showed 90.93% of anti-inflammatory protection. Conclusion: We found that the rind of calamansi plant contains tannins, and these tannins can be extracted using maceration and with water as solvent. We also concluded that anti-inflammatory property of tannins from calamansi rind is effective in increasing doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  202 34 -
Propylene Glycol: A New Alternative for an Intracanal Medicament
Siva Srinivas, NG Jibhkate, Rashmi Baranwal, Alok Avinash, Yogesh Tandil, Shravan Rathi
May 2016, 8(5):611-614
Background : For successful endodontic therapy, the most important factor is root canal cleaning. The difficulty involved in eliminating microorganisms, as well as their residual presence, after biomechanical preparation warrants the use of root canal dressings. Materials and Methods : For this proposed study, single rooted extracted permanent tooth were selected. The teeth are randomly divided into two groups to fill the canals: Group I: Calcium hydroxide- propylene glycol paste. Group II: Calcium hydroxide-saline paste. After complete filing of the root canal, the pH values of the solutions in the flasks are measured at an interval of 3, 24, 72, and 168 h. Data obtained was entered into Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet and then transferred to SPSS version 16.0 Software for the statistical analysis. Result : After 168 h interval, it was noticed that the mean pH obtained by calcium hydroxide - propylene glycol paste 9.70 ± 0.45 which was greater than calcium hydroxide - saline paste 9.16 ± 0.30 consecutively. Therefore, propylene glycol can also be used as a calcium hydroxide's vehicle. Conclusion : The calcium hydroxide - propylene glycol paste was able to diffuse through the dentinal tubules. Thus, it can be used as a vehicle for calcium hydroxide.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  137 19 -
Comparison of the Efficacy of Chemomechanical Caries Removal (Papacarie - A Papain Gel) and Conventional Excavation in Reducing Cariogenic Flora: An In Vivo Study
Girish Kulkarni, Dhairyasheel C Rane, Vinay Kumar Mishra
May 2016, 8(5):564-568
Background: Aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) (Papacarie) with that of conventional excavation in reducing the count of the cariogenic flora checked on blood agar plates. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 molar teeth (n = 40) were divided into two groups of 20 teeth each. In the first group, caries was removed using Papacarie gel and in second group caries was removed using dental bur. Caries samples were collected in sterile vials containing 1 ml of saline before and after application of Papacarie gel and dental bur. Excavated dentin samples were vortexed in microbiological lab followed by serial dilution and inoculation on blood agar aerobically for 24 h, and total viable counts (TVCs) were determined and expressed as colony forming units per sample. The data obtained was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The statistical analysis of data using Mann-Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon signed matched pairs test showed that there was mean reduction of TVC of bacteria by both, conventional drilling and CMCR (Papacarie) methods. The mean reduction of TVC was 90.55% and 89.02% for the conventional and chemomechanical methods, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this microbiological study show that efficacy of chemomechanical (Papacarie) removal of carious dentin is comparable to the result obtained by the conventional method.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  137 17 -
CASE REPORTS
A Report of Sado-Masochistic Behavior in a 7-year-old Child
R Neeraja
May 2016, 8(5):623-625
Sado-masochistic habits are those in which the patient enjoys inflicting damage to himself. It occurs among globally developmentally delayed individuals, psychotic patients, and individuals with severe personality disorder. Often, these habits pass unnoticed. As dentists, we should be aware that self-injurious behavior occurs in children and should be a part of any differential diagnosis involving soft tissue or dental trauma. In most of the instances, the general physical lesions get unobserved and neglected at times with prime concentration only to the oral region. The aim of this study is to present such a case of a 7-year-old child who actually reported for the dental problem, and sado-masochistic behavior was identified, and appropriate referrals and treatment was provided.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  132 12 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Push-out Strength of 3 Warm Obturation Techniques: Warm Vertical Compaction, GuttaCore, Gutta Fusion
Monique Hanna, Maha Daou, Alfred Naaman, Carla Zogheib
May 2016, 8(5):585-590
Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the bond strength of two techniques using the adhesion test. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 single-rooted permanent teeth were prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups; each one was obturated using the warm vertical compaction (WVC) technique or with thermoplasticized technique (GuttaCore; [GC] and GuttaFusion; [GF]). The samples were sectioned transversally at 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm from the apex, and an increasing force was applied at each section at a constant speed of 1 mm/min in the apico-coronal direction until a fracture occurs. The maximum load applied to the filling material before the separation was recorded in Newtons. The bond strength is then calculated. Microscopic inspection of the canal walls at Χ100 magnification, after extrusion of the filling material, was used to determine the failure mode. The data obtained was analyzed using Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. Fisher exact tests were conducted for the comparisons of failure mode among groups, with a significance level of 5%. Results: No significant difference was found between the three groups concerning the bond strength in the apical third. Moreover, the mean bond strength was significantly different between the sections of each group. Conclusion: The apical adaptation of GC and GF obturators was equivalent to those of WVC technique in the apical third regardless of canal level.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  134 9 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Propolis as a Natural Remedy
Kawthar Ahmed Daffalla, Ameira Sabri Mahmoud
May 2016, 8(5):646-649
Propolis is substance consists of resins, balsams, bee wax essential oils, and other organic compound collected from plants buds and exudates by honey bees. It is used in medical and dental field, for example, repairing of surgical wounds, dental sockets after extractions, direct and indirect pulp capping, antiplaque, dentine hypersensitivity, it is available in forms as capsules, lozenges, tincture or cream and can be used as mouthwash also and can be used internally and externally. It is hard breakable when cold and soft flexible and very stick when warm.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  125 17 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Assessment of the Quality of Root Canal Treatment Performed by Undergraduates in College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia: A Radiographic Analysis
Mohammed Abdul Kader, Ali Saad Almagtaf, Ahmed Babiker, Vahid Shakeela Nasim, Abhilash Abdul Latheef, Shoib Ali Shaik
May 2016, 8(5):575-578
Background: The education of undergraduate dental students endodontics should be of high standards to enable newly graduate dentists to deal with the most commonly encountered endodontic clinical problems. Hence, the objective of this study is to evaluate radiographically the quality of root canal fillings done by undergraduate students in the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality of root canal fillings among the student's level 9-12. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective observational study, total of 250 endodontically treated teeth with 352 root canals were evaluated. Three periapical radiographs of each root filled tooth were examined. The length, density, taper of root fillings, and presence of procedural errors were examined. The length of the root canal filling was categorized as adequate, short, and overfilled in relation to the radiographic apex. Density and tapering of the filling were based on voids and uniform tapering from the orifice to the apex. The procedural errors examined were ledge, missed canal, gouging, fractured instrument, and perforation. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The length of root canal filling was adequate for 217 canals and no voids in 162 canals and tapering was adequate for 165 canals of 352 canals examined. The short filling, the presence of voids and inadequate tapering, is more common in level 9 than higher levels. The most common procedural errors were ledge formation and gauging. Conclusion: The radiographic quality of the root canal treatment by undergraduate students in the College of Dentistry, Khalid University, Saudi Arabia, was satisfactory compared to other similar studies
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  128 11 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Occlusal Splint Therapy in Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: An Update Review
MS Lakshmi, Sufiyan M Kalekhan, Rahul Mehta, Mohit Bhangdia, Kapil Rathore, Vidushi Lalwani
May 2016, 8(5):639-645
Occlusal splint therapy has been used routinely for diagnosis and treatment of various masticatory system disorders. Treatment with these appliances is non-invasive, reversible, and provides proper treatment. Literature provides an understanding of treatment protocol for the use of splints for temporomandibular disorders. The selection of particular splint design appropriate for patients' disorder will be facilitated by a better understanding of its physiologic and therapeutic effects. This review article enables reader with basic splint designs and explains how and when to use these effectively.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  126 13 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
An Investigation on the Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Three-dimensional Braided Composite Orthodontic Archwires
Shawn L Smith, Dan L Romanyk, Paul W Major, Cagri Ayranci
May 2016, 8(5):554-559
Background: Traditionally, orthodontists use metallic archwires during treatment with braces; however, the use of alternative materials such as coated metals, polymers, and fiber-reinforced composites can be advantageous for esthetics or achieving different mechanical properties. The following manuscript reports a study on three-dimensional (3D) braided reinforced polymeric composite archwires. The manufacturing process of the archwires is presented, and their mechanical behavior under tension and torsional loading are investigated. Materials and Methods: Two types of composite archwires were produced, with and without axial fibers/yarns, on a miniature 3D Cartesian braiding machine. A polyurethane-based biocompatible thermoset shape memory polymer was used as the matrix. 10 samples, with and without axial fibers, were tested in tension, and 10 samples without axial fibers were tested in torsion. Results: The average elastic moduli of the braided composites were 21.63 GPa and 28.63 GPa for the samples without axial yarns and with axial yarns, respectively. This variation outlines the tailorability of the braiding process to obtain different properties using the same material. Shear modulus was also investigated for the samples without axial yarns, and the average shear modulus was found to be 822 MPa. Conclusions: Properties in tension and torsion are comparable to those of existing archwires listed in the literature. In addition, the variation in elastic modulus between samples with and without axial yarns clearly indicates the tailorability of braided archwires. From the findings, it is evident that braided composite archwires offer a viable alternative to conventional archwires and should be investigated in more detail.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  126 10 -
Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Electrosurgical Pulpotomies in Primary Molars: An In-Vivo Study
MS Girish, Prakash Chandra, Latha Anandakrishna
May 2016, 8(5):601-606
Background: Pulpotomy is the most common treatment modality employed to preserve a cariously exposed symptom-free primary molars, which aims to preserve the vitality of radicular pulp till its exfoliation. Such pulpotomy agent should bactericidal, should not damage surrounding tissues, promote healing of remaining of pulp tissue, and should not affect physiological resorptive process of the tooth. The quest for one such ideal pulpotomy material/procedure is never conclusive. Hence, this study was conducted to assess and compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and electrosurgical pulpotomies in human primary molar teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 carious mandibular primary molars from 46 children whose pulpal status was indicated for pulpotomy were considered. The selected teeth were randomly divided into two groups using simple randomization number table. MTA and electrosurgical pulpotomies were performed for the respective group followed by the placement of stainless steel crown. Pulpotomized patients were recalled for further follow-up at 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th month for clinical and radiological evaluation. McNemar's test was used to determine the differences between groups. Results: At the end of the 12 months follow-up, the overall success rate for MTA was at 96.7% and for electrosurgery was at 90%. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups compared. Conclusion: Success of electrosurgical pulpotomies can be comparable with that of MTA.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  124 10 -
Assessment and Comparison of Two Different Desensitizing Agents for Treating Dentin Hypersensitivity: A Randomized Clinical Study
Jai Hans Agarwal, Ajai Gupta, Ankit Garg, Pooja Soni, Nikky Bansal, Karan Sharma
May 2016, 8(5):615-618
Background: Dentinal hypersensitivity comprises one of the global oral health issues and imposes a significant challenge for the physicians and dentists for its treatment. It is difficult for the patients to describe the symptoms of this clinical situation because of very nonspecific features it presents. Nowadays, a variety of solutions and agents are available in the market for its treatment. Hence, we aim to evaluate the effect of two different desensitizing agents on dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients were selected for the study. Only those patients were included, who reported with the chief complaint of symptoms of DH. The patients were divided randomly into three groups; Group A: Patients on Duraphat™ (Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, USA), Group B: Patients on Seal and Protect™ (Dentsply DeTrey, Germany), and Group C patients on placebo. Assessment of air and water sensitivity scores was done to evaluate visual analogue scale scores at an initial time, 3 weeks' time and 6 weeks' time. One-way ANOVA was used to assess the level of significance. Results: A significant reduction in the sensitivity scores was seen in all the study at different time intervals (P < 0.05). No statistically significant obtained on comparing both the desensitizing agents between different study groups (P > 0.05). However, on comparing both the study groups with the control group, significant results were obtained. Conclusion: Both Duraphat and Seal and Protect are equally effective in reducing the symptoms of dentin hypersensitivity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  120 10 -
Evaluation of Endodontic Treatment among General Dental Practitioners and Endodontists Working in Governmental Hospitals in Al Madina
A Hawsa, S Hussain
May 2016, 8(5):540-545
Background : Despite having advanced technologies in materials, methods of preparation, radiographs, and obturation, there are still many dentists who do not follow the standard endodontic protocol. By this research, we aim to improve the quality of standard in the endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners and endodontists emphasizing the role of continuous medical education to update their knowledge according to modern standards. Materials and Methods: A prepared questionnaire was piloted and interviewed among endodontists and general practitioners in governmental hospitals in Al Madina. The collected data were analyzed utilizing SPSS 20 computer software for the results. A basic elucidating investigation was utilized to get the outcomes as rate. Results: Out of 18 respondents to the interview questionnaire, 77% of them were male and 22% were females. 55.6% were practicing in governmental hospitals, 44.4% were involved in education. 66.6% were endodontists and 33.3% were general practitioners. 83.3% of respondents did not take the informed consent from their patients. The rubber dam was utilized by 83.3% of respondents as a method of field isolation. Over 55.6% utilized either filing, step back, crown down or combination technique for root canal preparation. Rotary files were utilized by 5.6% of respondents. 66.7% were utilizing radiographs in a combination with electronic apex locator to determine working length. 55.6% treated their patients without any use of magnification system. 55.6% were frequently utilizing sodium hypochlorite in the most diluted form (2.5%) for irrigation, 44.4% utilized lateral compaction obturation technique, and 55.6% utilized resin sealer as the sealer of choice for obturation. Cavit was the top choice for the temporary restorative material. 61% of respondents followed their patients after treatment, whereas 27% of them were depending on the condition of cases. Conclusion: Since there are restricted numbers of endodontic specialists in KSA, particularly in Al Madina, the expert bodies ought to advocate the endodontic programs to maximize the numbers of endodontic specialists in Al Madina. There ought to a conduction of legitimately organized proceeding with training courses, to meet the requests and needs of endodontists and general dental practitioners in regards to the present day equipment and advanced methods and technologies in the endodontic field.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  122 8 -
Radiographic Evaluation of Periodontal Bone Loss in Patients with HIV
Tereza Aparecida Delle Vedove Semenoff, Alvaro Henrique Borges, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Rodrigues Tonetto, Monica Barros Silva, Leonardo Stephan Caporossi, Jussara Machado Pereira, Alessandra Nogueira Porto, Alex Semenoff Segundo
May 2016, 8(5):607-610
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate bone insertion loss in patients with HIV. Materials and Methods: A total of 132 patients were selected from a special patient center and divided into two groups: A test group (triglyceride [TG]; n = 66) composed of HIV-positive patients and a control group (CG; n = 66) composed of patients not infected with HIV who were matched to the TG in terms of age and sex. Bone loss was measured in panoramic radiographs from the distance between the cementoenamel junction and the point nearest the corona of the bone crest in the mesial and distal portions of the teeth. Student's t-test, odds ratios for bone losses <5 mm and >5 mm, and Pearson's correlation tests (P < 0.05) were used. Results: The HIV group had significantly (P < 0.05) fewer teeth and greater radiographic bone loss compared with the CG. The results demonstrated a 3.04 (1.34-6.89) odds risk of bone loss for the group of patients with HIV. Patients older than 35 years in the TG had a risk of 6.50 (1.41-29.9). There were no sex differences between the groups, 1.22 (0.47-3.14). A correlation was established between CD4 and CD8 levels, the number of teeth and loss in bone height of HIV carriers. There were no correlations between the data for these results. Conclusions: Despite its limitations, this study shows that HIV- positive patients, even those with controlled viral loads and CD4 and CD8 levels, exhibited a greater loss of teeth and radiographic bone height than did age- and sex-matched controls without HIV.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  119 10 -
Community Approach to Fight against Noma in a Developing Country: The Case of Senegal
Daouda Faye, A´da , Cheikh MbackÚ Lo
May 2016, 8(5):560-563
Background: Noma is a disease of early childhood and is unknown to the health staff and community. Prevention and care become difficult. To help eliminate this disease in the population of Senegal, we conducted a study, which aim was to improve the fight against noma in our country. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 at the district level health, regions of Saint-Louis, Matam, Kaolack, and Diourbel. The activities focused on pleading, training, sensitization, epidemiological supervision, and management of cases. Results: The pleading focused on all the district local authorities. For the training, 94.6% of people from rural areas: Community health workers, traditional birth attendants, relays, traditional healers, nurses, and midwives. Awareness concerned 2500 persons consisting of mothers, members of social associations, and women's groups. As regards epidemiological supervision, 96.5% of detected cases of noma and necrotizing gingivitis were from rural areas. 31 cases of noma were diagnosed from 2012 to 2014 including 6 in 2012, 15 in 2013, and 20 cases in 2014. The vast majority of these cases (75%) were managed at the level of health boxes at the beginning of the disease. Conclusion: The management of noma based on pleading, training, staff awareness of health, community, and people (especially mothers) can greatly contribute to screening and treatment of cases. The approach to fight against this disease in developing countries can be recommended for a better understanding of the pathology to eliminate it.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  121 8 -
CASE REPORTS
Congenital Epulis in the Newborn, Review of the Literature and Report of a Case
Shivaraj Wagdargi, Ravi S Patil, Guraraj Arakeri, Chitra Chakravarthy, Sanjay Sunder, Kapil Rathore
May 2016, 8(5):629-631
Neumann's tumor is a rare benign soft tissue lesion presents during birth. It arises from the gingival mucosa, at the anterior part of the maxillary alveolar ridge and is typically seen as protruding mass out of the newborn child's mouth that may interfere with respiration or feeding or lip closure. Female predilection is more compared to male population with ratio of 8:1. Excision of the lesion is the only possible treatment, but its spontaneous regression has been reported. Post-operative recurrence rate of this tumor is less and no damage to any dentition has not been reported, this suggests that radical excision is not required. This case report presents the case of a female infant with a solid ovoid mass protruding from the oral cavity. Treatment of this lesion was surgically done and subjecting to histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of congenital epulis. No post-surgical complications were noted, and examination of the infant later has revealed no sign of recurrence.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  120 7 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
An Epidemiological Study of Tobacco and Arecanut use in Rural Area of Western India
Krushna A Thakkar, Anukool H Pateria, Milind Naphade, Ujwala Naphade, Swapnil Dahapute, Pooja Wankhade
May 2016, 8(5):591-594
Background: A descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted to assess the "tobacco and arecanut use in rural area of western India." The aim of the study was to determine and compare the prevalence of tobacco and arecanut use in rural area of western India. Materials and Methods: In the present study, Waghodia taluka was equally divided into four regions. From each region, two grampanchayats were selected with the simple random technique in which lottery method was used. The total of eight grampanchayats constituted the part of our study. The totals of 25 villages coming under the jurisdiction of these grampanchayats were part of the study. Data were collected by conducting house to house survey then entered into the pretested proforma and statistical analysis was done using SPSS software and Chi-square test. Results: 37.7% participants were having tobacco and areca nut related habits. The male participants dominated in having the habits. The maximum number of habitual participants were from the age group of 35-39 years. The prevalence of tobacco and areca nut use was high in illiterate and poor economic groups. The most common habit prevalent was tobacco consumption in various forms. In participants having tobacco consumption, the prevalence of habit of tobacco smoking was high. In participants having habit of consumption of smokeless tobacco, the most prevalent habit was the use of tobacco quid and snuff. Among various forms of areca nut chewing habit, gutkha chewing was the most commonly used form. Conclusion: Tobacco and arecanut use were alarmingly high in rural area of western India.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  118 8 -
Isolation and Evaluation of Microbial Flora in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Microbiological Study
Mitesh Parekh, Venkataramana Pammi, S Bharath Vardhana, Dharam M Hinduja, Mohil M Asnani, Anis Ahmed
May 2016, 8(5):619-622
Background: The periodontal diseases comprise of a group of diseases involving gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. Although multifactorial, the main etiological factor in causing periodontitis is the presence of microorganisms. Animal model studies have shown a positive significant correlation between the presence of dental plaque and occurrence of periodontal pathologies. Hence, we aim to isolate and evaluate the microbial flora in patients with chronic generalize periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients reporting with the problem of chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Samples were collected twice. Initially, before the commencement of any treatment and second, following scaling and root planning treatment along with antibiotic therapy after 1 week. Specimens were sent to the microbiology laboratory for evaluation and assessment. McConkey agar, 5% sheep blood agar and agar plates containing hematin and Vitamin K were used for assessment of growth of colonies of microorganisms. Results: Average age of the patients was between 45 and 65 years. 76 of the isolates from the patients were polymicrobial in nature. 34 polymicrobial specimens were combination of 2 isolates while samples were a combination of 3 or more isolates. 89% of the total isolates were strictly anaerobes while remaining were aerobic in nature. Fusobacterium species were the most common among the anaerobes. Conclusion: Periodontitis patients comprises of a wide morphological diverse microbial flora which should be considered while planning treatment.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  116 9 -
Effect of the Ingestion of Low-molecular-weight Anticoagulant on the Progression of Induced Periodontitis in Rats
Alex Semenoff Segundo, Alvaro Henrique Borges, Alessandra Nogueira Porto, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Ana Carolina Soares Diniz, Ana Paula da Cunha Barbosa de Lima, Samyra Lopes Buzelle, Tereza A Delle Vedove Semenoff
May 2016, 8(5):536-539
Background: The aim of this article is to assess whether the administration of low-molecular-weight anticoagulant (LMWA) is able to interfere with the progression of bone loss in experimental ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Materials and Methods: 48 rats were randomly divided into four groups of equal numbers (n = 12). The first group received only LMWA-heparin (HG); the second one had periodontal disease induced (LG); the third one was the combination of heparin and induced periodontitis (HLG), and the fourth and last group was the control (CG) - nothing was done. Heparin (600 IU/kg/day) was administered subcutaneous from the first day of the experiment for the groups HG and HLG and remained for 30 days. Periodontitis was induced in maxillary right second molar on groups LG and HLG 15 days after the beginning of the experiment and remained for 15 days longer. The bone loss in left and right maxillaries was radiographic compared between groups. Results: To bone loss, the findings show that the left side without induction of periodontal disease showed the lowest radiographic bone loss with no significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). On the side where disease was induced, HLG presented the highest radiographic bone loss in relation to the other groups (P < 0.05), followed by LG (P < 0.05) and CG and GH with no differences between them (P > 0.05). In comparisons between the right side (with induction of disease) and the left side (without induction of disease), there were differences for all comparisons (P > 0.05), excepting the one between HG and CG. Conclusion: Rats undergoing heparin therapy tests had greater bone loss after induction of ligature-induced periodontitis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  114 7 -
Maternal Periodontitis and its Relation with Preterm Gestation: A Clinical and Case-control Study
Vinathi Reddy Kankara, V Viswanath, P Pranitha, Yasangi Manoj Kumar, Dhanalakshmi Mannem, Devi Ganji
May 2016, 8(5):569-574
Background: Why maternal periodontitis may induce an inflammatory response with a preterm pregnancy is unclear? This study was done to assess if periodontitis can predict preterm gestation Aim: The aim of this study was to assess if periodontitis can predict preterm gestation. Materials and Methods: Clinical parameters such as pocket depth/sulcus depth and Russel's periodontal indices were recorded from 36 subjects. They were divided into two groups based on the parameters such as gestational age (GA) above or below 36 weeks and periodontal pocket depth beyond 5 mm. Results: A positive correlation was found between GA, Russel's periodontal index, and pocket depth (r = −0.69, P < 0.001), (r = −0.71, P < 0.001), i.e., when pocket depth is more than 4 mm; there was increase in Russel's periodontal index score, estimated GA shows a steady decline. Conclusion: With increase Russel's periodontal index score and periodontal destruction, there is increase of inverse relationship to premature gestation
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  115 6 -
CASE REPORTS
Management of Bolton Discrepancy in Peg-shaped Tooth
NV Hantodkar, Amol A Verulkar, Anand Tripathi, Anukool Pateria, Swapnil B Wankhade, Rinku Advani
May 2016, 8(5):626-628
Orthodontic treatment comprises different phases with unique characteristics and challenges. Tooth size discrepancies are considered an important variable, especially in the anterior segment. Orthodontic treatment of a patient with peg-shaped lateral incisor becomes difficult due to problem encounter during bonding of orthodontic bracket on the malformed tooth. Maintaining midline and space for final restoration on peg-shaped lateral incisor during orthodontic treatment is mostly done using coil spring which is less efficient, tedious, and uncomfortable to the patient. This article presents a new method of management of Bolton discrepancy due to peg-shaped lateral in conjunction with temporary prosthetic pontic by the orthodontic method.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  92 10 -
RETRACTION NOTICE
Retraction Notice

May 2016, 8(5):650-650
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Immediate Implant Placement with Immediate Loading in Periodontally Compromised Patients: A Literature Review
Nabeeh Abdullah AlQahtani
May 2016, 8(5):632-638
The aim of the present literature review was to assess the outcomes of immediate implant placement with immediate loading in periodontally compromised patients and to review the guidelines for this type of treatment. The MEDLINE-PubMed databases were searched for appropriate articles addressing the purpose of this study. The search included articles published in English literature from 1977 up to 2014. The placement of implants immediately in fresh sockets with immediate loading in periodontally compromised patients is a promising treatment modality, but the practitioner should follow a very strict protocol. Further long-term research is required to prove the predictability of utilizing guided bone regeneration around immediate implants with immediate loading in periodontally compromised patients.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Awareness on the Association between Periodontal Diseases and Pregnancy Outcomes among Gynecologists: A Cross-sectional Study
Kode Venkata Satyanarayana, Yendluri Durga Bai, Pakerla Aruna, Nagisetty Sindhura, Gedela Rupa Monisha, Garre Sreenivasulu
May 2016, 8(5):579-584
Background: Studies showed periodontal diseases are risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Prenatal health care should include an assessment of oral health during pregnancy. Lack of awareness and attitudes regarding oral health leads to neonatal mortality and preterm low birth weight among infants. Finally, what needs to be realized is the key role of medical professionals in this aspect, to deliver appropriate and standard prenatal care to pregnant women. Hence, it is essential to evaluate the knowledge of medical health professionals about periodontitis and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hyderabad among gynecologists using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to the gynecologists by e-mails, fax, and personal interactions and was requested to anonymously complete the questionnaire. Results: Among 112 respondents, 51.7% of them were aware of what is a periodontal disease, 57% of participants were aware of that pregnancy is a cause for preterm birth, 79.4% of gynecologists said that there was a correlation between health of the teeth, gums, and pregnancy, 65% of practitioners refer patients to the dentist when they are at risk, 75.7% of the participants were questioning their patients about their oral health during consultations, and only a few practitioners were referring, systematically their patient to a dentist. Knowledge of periodontitis is seen more in experienced practitioners with a hospital practice. Conclusions: Clinical behavior regarding oral and periodontal health did not correlate with such knowledge; therefore, specific educational programs should be developed to share knowledge between dentists and gynecologists to develop teamwork. Periodic dental visits during early phases of pregnancy can be proposed to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes and to improve oral health status in pregnant woman.
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Comparison of Characteristics of De-bonded Enamel Surface after Various Resin Removal Methods using Atomic Force Microscopy: An In Vitro Study
Hrudya Balachandran, Shaji T Varghese, R Krishnaraj, S Sreenivas, Lijo K Jose, VR Joshy
May 2016, 8(5):595-600
Background: During bracket removal, bond failure may occur at the adhesive-enamel or at the adhesive-bracket interface (adhesive failure), or within the adhesive (cohesive failure); generally, a combination of adhesive and cohesive failure (mixed failure) takes place. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on the enamel surface of two burs: Tungsten carbide finishing bur (G-701, SS White) and composite bur (Shofu GMBH, Germany) and Sof-Lex discs (Shofu GMBH, Germany) on resin removal after de-bonding procedure, evaluated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 45 human maxillary premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose. After preparation, the surface roughness of the enamel surface before bonding was examined using AFM. Teeth were painted with primer and adhesive resin was placed on the bracket bases. The brackets were bonded to the prepared enamel, excess adhesive was removed, and the resin was light-cured. After 24 h, brackets were de-bonded with a de-bonding plier. The resin removal was done using three different methods. All bonding, de-bonding, and resin removal processes were applied to the samples by the same hand, and a fresh bur was used for each tooth. Complete removal of the resin remnants was verified clinically by visual inspection under a dental operating light, and final roughness parameters were registered with AFM. Average roughness (Ra0) value, root mean square roughness (Rq), and maximum roughness depth ( Rmax) gathered were statistically evaluated. Results: Overall comparison among three different groups using paired t-test was done, it was found that statistically significant values were obtained in pre-bond and after resin removal among Ra, Rq, and Rmax values with P < 0.001. All the roughness parameters were least after de-bonding in Group C. Conclusion: From the results obtained, it can be found that Sof- Lex discs used for resin removal created smoother surfaces than tungsten carbide bur and composite finishing bur and hence can be used for better finishing of enamel surface after de-bonding. Finishing of de-bonded surface with any single system will not be adequate to restore the smooth surface of enamel.
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EDITORIAL
High Time to Introspect
Beena Rani Goel
May 2016, 8(5):0-0
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