The content of active materials in miswak (Salvadora persica): An Analytical study using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer
Ayu Tri Jayanti1, Aulia Nasution2, Hery Suyanto3, Taufan Bramantoro4, Al Rizqi Fauziyah1
1 Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology and System Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia
2 Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology and System Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia; Dental Public Health and Primary Health Care Research Group, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia
3 Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Jimbaran-Bali, Indonesia
4 Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia
Dr. Aulia Nasution
Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology and System Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, and Dental Public Health and Primary Health Care Research Group, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, East Java.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: The trend of cleaning teeth with miswak amidst the modern technological developments can be found in the majority of large countries. Many advantages of miswak increase its trade throughout the world, causing it to be easily obtainable on the market. However, until now, there have not been many studies that explain the active substances in miswak sold on the market. This study aims to analyze the content of active substances from various types of miswaks, which are sold freely on the market. Materials and Methods: A total of five miswaks from Saudi Arabia and Pakistan were taken as the study sample. The miswak was divided into three types of samples: powder, extract, and evaporated extract samples. All miswaks were extracted using maceration method. The chemical content was tested using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and an ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometer. The research results were analyzed using Origin software. Results: FTIR test of the miswak powder showed that miswak B had a dominant phosphoric acid (PH) group and pH ester with a wave range of 2425-2325 cm‒1. The FTIR test of the miswak extract showed phosphorus atoms at wavenumber 867.96 cm‒1 with PO groups and 430.01 cm‒1 with the P-Cl group in the compound. UV–Vis test of the miswak extract showed that miswak B and miswak E had higher absorbance values than other miswaks. The UV–Vis test of the evaporated miswak extract resulted in the breakdown of molecular bonds in miswak E after going through the evaporation process, causing more than one wave peak to be produced. The FTIR test of the evaporated miswak extract showed that miswak R had a strong bond between molecules. Hence, the PH group is not broken during the evaporation process. Conclusion: Miswaks which are sold freely in the market contain an active substance in the form of phosphoric acid which consists of phosphorus atoms which are beneficial to human teeth and bones.