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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2017| September-October  | Volume 9 | Issue 5  
    Online since October 20, 2017

 
 
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Knowledge of community pharmacists regarding oral health care in Plateau State, Northern Nigeria
Olaniyi O Taiwo, Raymond M Panas
September-October 2017, 9(5):222-227
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_184_17  
Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of oral health of community pharmacists (CPs) in Plateau State, Northern Nigeria, serving as a template upon which they can be engaged as a medium to improve oral health care among the people. Materials and Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study on CPs spanning the entire State. Results: CPs (113) were recruited as participants. A one-sample t-test showed good knowledge of oral health by the CPs: mean = 17.2, standard deviation (SD) = 2.44, t (112) = 5.14, P < 0.001. Independent sample t-test showed statistically significant differences in mean oral health knowledge of CPs who stock oral health-care products (mean = 17.3, SD = 2.4) than those who did not: (mean) = 13, (SD) = 1.41, t (111) = 2.50, P = 0.014. A multiple regression analysis also showed stocking oral health products as the only statistically significant predictor of knowledge score. Organizing workshops and seminars on oral health (63%) were the most common suggestion by the CPs on how knowledge of oral health can be improved among them. Conclusion: CPs may be effectively employed in oral health promotion because patients frequently contact them and regularly ask for their advice on both general and oral health-care. It would be beneficial to empower them through trainings and access to oral health information so as to help them take a more active and integrated role as part of a multidisciplinary health-care team attending to the oral health concerns of the people.
  4 2,347 103
Crosscultural translation and adaptation of the Moroccan version of the child-oral impacts on daily performance 11–14 oral health-related quality of life
Laila Lazrak, Farid Bourzgui, Zineb Serhier, Samir Diouny, Mohamed Bennani Othmani
September-October 2017, 9(5):236-241
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_84_17  
Aims: This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and adapt the Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) measure into Moroccan Arabic and assess its reliability and validity. Materials and Methods: The original Child-OIDP was translated from English into Moroccan Arabic and back again. The Moroccan version of the Child-OIDP instrument was, then, validated on 11–14-year-old school children in Casablanca, Morocco, who responded to questions assessing their perceived oral problems. Results: The study revealed that the average score of Child-OIDP was 8.3 (standard deviation 8.7). Internal consistency was confirmed with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.58; the testing-retesting procedures showed a satisfactory reproducibility (r = 0.93). The convergent validity was very satisfactory; the Child-OIDP score increased when the children had dental problems. The Child-OIDP score was able to discriminate the different sociodemographic groups. Conclusion: The study showed that the Moroccan version of the Child-OIDP had satisfactory psychometric properties, and is, therefore, a valid and reliable instrument.
  3 2,302 117
Oral health status and dental treatment needs of sensory-impaired children of Satara District, India
KM Shivakumar, Snehal Patil, Vidya Kadashetti
September-October 2017, 9(5):197-201
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_158_17  
Background: The physiological deficit can often lead to disability and one of the major population groups of disabled children includes the children with hearing impairment. In India, people with disability may be with one or more of its kind which is equal to 2.1% of the population of the country. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the oral hygiene status, dental caries levels, and periodontal status among the sensory-impaired children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 150 disabled children aged 5–22 years attending a school for the sensory impaired children of Satara district, India. The subjects were examined using Type III clinical examination. Oral hygiene status by oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), decayed, missing, and filled teeth/surface (DMFT/S) index, periodontal status by community periodontal index, and dentition status and treatment needs were assessed. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The highest component of DMFT/dmft was the decayed component, with a mean of 2.71 ± 1.92. The P < 0.05 was statistically significant. The Calculus Index-Simplified and OHI-S index showed a significant difference between males and females of the study population (P < 0.05, S). Of 150 subjects examined, 72.6% subjects needed one surface filling, while 21.3% needed two surface fillings, 15.3% needed pit and fissure sealant application, 10% needed pulp care, and 6% needed tooth extraction. Conclusion: There is an alarming situation for dental diseases among special children. Hence, it is recommended to encourage their parents and school teachers to promote and improve their dental health.
  2 3,187 297
Assessing self-reported oral health status of three Andean indigenous communities in Ecuador
Denice C Curtis, Fernando Ortega, Johanna Monar, R Curt Bay, Scott Eckhart, Paige Thompson
September-October 2017, 9(5):207-212
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_164_17  
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess how individuals in three rural communities in Ecuador self-rate their oral health status. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study that utilized a survey to assess the community awareness of risk factors for oral health. Because fluorosis is an issue that affects these communities, local water systems were tested for excess fluoride. Results: One hundred and eighty-five individuals aged 18 years and older participated in the study. Two-thirds of the participants described the state of their teeth as average or poor and more than half stated that they had sought dental care due to pain and need for treatment during the past year. Age and education had a statistically significant effect on how people described the state of their teeth. Significant associations were found between number of years of education and age and number of natural teeth the participants had (rs = 0.43, n = 177, P ≤ 0.001; rs= −0.53, n = 178, P ≤ 0.001). Likewise, significant associations were found between number of years of education and age and how participants described the state of their teeth (rs= −0.228, n = 177, P ≤ 0.001; −0.617, n = 177; P < 0.001). A very high-fluoride level (4.86 mg/L) was found in one of the communities. Conclusions: Social and physical determinants of health seem to have a significant impact on the oral health of rural communities in Ecuador. Lack of regular access to dental care and low levels of education are important barriers for oral health in these communities.
  2 2,401 108
Evaluation of a glaze polishing technique for pigmented denture acrylic resin submitted to thermocycling and disinfection
Marcelo Coelho Goiato, Mariana Vilela Sônego, Denise de Barros Carneiro, Emily Vivianni Freitas da Silva, Liliane da Rocha Bonatto, Elidiane Cipriano Rangel, Daniela Micheline dos Santos
September-October 2017, 9(5):213-221
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_171_17  
Aims: Compare the mechanical and physical properties of two polishing techniques for acrylic resins under the influence of disinfection. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eight circular samples (10 mm diameter × 3 mm height) were manufactured, with 160 for the color stability, hardness, surface roughness, and wettability (n = 10) analyses, and 48 for the scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy evaluation (n = 1). Two brands of prosthesis acrylic resin, Onda Cryl and Lucitone, were used to manufacture the samples. Half of the samples were intrinsically pigmented with a purple acrylic pigment (Policor) at 7% of the total weight in powder; half of those received the mechanical polish with sand paper under constant water irrigation in a universal polishing machine at 300 rpm (control), and half received a uniform coat of a photopolymerized glaze (Megaseal) to be tested. The samples were kept immersed in distilled water for 24 h before the initial measurements (T0), afterward, they were divided into two disinfection procedures; half were disinfected through microwave energy and half through cleaning tablets (Efferdent) for 60 days (T1). Results: The glaze polished groups presented inferior chromatic stability and the pigments prevented discoloration for the glaze polish. The disinfectant solutions promoted a superficial degradation of the acrylic resin for both polishing techniques. Lucitone presented higher hardness values than Onda Cryl (P < 0.001) and the glaze technique had higher hardness values than the mechanic polish. Conclusion: The photopolymerized glaze improved some characteristics of the acrylic resin, such as the surface hardness and roughness suggesting it is an adequate polish for acrylic resins.
  1 2,289 131
Polyether ether ketone in protocol bars: Mechanical behavior of three designs
Geraldo Alberto Pinheiro de Carvalho, Aline Batista Gonçalves Franco, Simone Kreve, Elimário Venturin Ramos, Sergio Cândido Dias, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do Amaral
September-October 2017, 9(5):202-206
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_163_17  
Aim: This study evaluated the compressive strength (CS) of protocol bars on polyether ether ketone (PEEK) implants compared to metallic bars (NiCr). Materials and Methods: Thirty PEEK bars and thirty metallic bars (control) were produced using three different cross-sectional designs (n = 10): rectangular cross-section solid bar (R), T-type (T), and inverted T-type (T inv). All bars were 30 mm long. The bars were screwed to Cone Morse implants of 3.75 mm × 11.0 mm and submitted to compression strength test in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min), with the load applied to the bar cantilever. After the test, we measured the counter torque on the screws. Results: Compression strength (N) and counter torque (N/cm) data were analyzed with two criteria: ANOVA and Tukey (α = 0.05). PEEK bars showed mean compression strength significantly lower than NiCr bars, for all designs (P < 0.001), with R bars showing the best results and T inv, the worst results. PEEK bars showed smaller counter torque values than NiCr bars for R or T designs (P = 0.002). Conclusion: For PEEK bars, T inv design resulted in the smaller compression strength. PEEK solid bars, with rectangular cross-section, showed larger resistance to compression in comparison to the other designs. However, PEEK bars showed lower compression strength than that verified for metallic bars.
  - 3,123 218
Relationship between oral health and physical activity in a young population aged 6–18 years from Seixal's public schools, Portugal (2011–2014)
Octávio Rodrigues, Susana Adam, Mariana Freitas, Ana Cristina Martins, Ana Rita Granja, Paulo Nogueira, Tânia Moreira, Nuno Simões
September-October 2017, 9(5):228-235
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_34_17  
Aims: This study aimed to evaluate oral health status, using index missing decomposition index for definitive teeth (DMF), Missing decomposition index for deciduous teeth (dmf), both in children and teenagers from Seixal's public schools, as well as to characterize the level of physical exercise practiced by these students and to analyze its possible relationship with oral health. Materials and Methods: A transversal study was performed using a group or sample of 4164 students, with ages between 6 and 18 years. Data were collected using a questionnaire adapted, to evaluate the amount of exercise practiced and the index of teeth with cavities, lost or crowned, to then evaluate their level of oral health. Results: It was verified that 43.2% of children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years of age practiced some form of regular or the high physical activity (AFI) was more common in men (61.2%) than in women (P <.001). All dmf indices were lower in girls (0.91±1.84) than in boys (1.13±2.06) (P < 0.001). Adolescents who practiced low physical activity (BAF) had, on average, a higher DMF index (DMFI). All DMFIs were higher in girls 1.55 ± 2.46 than in boys 1.34 ± 2.35 (P < 0.008). DMF rates also tended to increase with age. Conclusion: Using this study, it was possible to verify the correlation between dmf index and the practice of physical exercise. Male teenagers showed higher dmf indexes. Besides, individuals who did not practice much physical exercise also showed high dmf indexes.
  - 3,063 129
REVIEW ARTICLE
Current challenges in private practice
Treville Pereira
September-October 2017, 9(5):191-196
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_128_17  
India is the second most populated country in the world with the largest democracy. Inspite of this, nearly 70% of the Indian population reside in villages. Hence, the demand and supply ratio of the availability of dentists is far inadequate and insufficient. We consider that the profession of dentistry is a noble one. Only after years of devotion toward the subject of dentistry does one obtain the graduate degree of Bachelor of Dental Surgery. Unfortunately, even after such painstaking efforts, the dental practice for graduates in India is grave. There are a lot of issues that are the main cause for this problem. Such a situation will lead to a negative effect on the integrity of the budding dentists as well as the trained dental workforce of the country. It is a known fact that the appropriate dental skills can prove to be beneficial in preventive dental care services to the public and aid in achieving the goal of universal oral health coverage. Now, we are nearing the second decade in a new century, and a new millennium. As part of these new beginnings, it is worthwhile to reassess the ability of dental workforce in India who are efficiently providing dental care to a population that is growing in size and diversity. We need a strategy that can be used on an ongoing basis and ensure that our nation maintains a workforce with the skills and cultural competence to provide the care that the nation demands. This article provides a review of the major issues facing dental practices today and how these challenges can be effectively tackled.
  - 3,929 259